Presentation on theme: "ROME Pax Romana, LIFE, RISE OF CHRISTIANITY, FALL OF THE EMPIRE."— Presentation transcript:
ROME Pax Romana, LIFE, RISE OF CHRISTIANITY, FALL OF THE EMPIRE
Pax Romana Emperors Romans never developed a rule for selecting emperors – many named their successors. Army sometimes refused to accept them. – Some brutal, disliked – Many assassinated – Some good Period of 100 years (Five Good Emperors) – Hadrian – built Hadrian’s Wall fortifying the frontier.
Hadrian's Wall was a defensive fortification in Roman Britain. Begun in 122 AD, during the rule of emperor Hadrian, it was the first of two fortifications built across Great Britain
Problems of Expansion Huge area to control Senate gained power – nearly complete control over army and foreign policy. Stopped offering citizenship to new areas, became subjects. New class of business people (equites) gained wealth and influence due to trade throughout the empire.
Problems Violence began to replace respect for the law as the primary tool of politics. – The Gracchi (two brothers who were elected as tribunes) were both murdered because of policies to help common people – land reform, selling cheap grain.
Gods and goddesses resembled those of Greeks and Etruscans. Religious festivals inspired sense of community. Romans built many temples for worship. Both girls and boys learned to read and write. Education was highly valued. Women gained greater freedom and influence over the centuries. Some women ran businesses. Most worked at home, raising families. The family was the basic unit of Roman society. Male was head of household and had absolute authority. Roman Society FAMILYWOMEN EDUCATIONRELIGION 1
Roman Advances in Art and Science Emphasized grandeur Improved column and arch Developed rounded dome Built roads, bridges, and harbors throughout empire Built many aqueducts Sculptors stressed realism. Artists depicted life scenes in frescoes and mosaics. Romans left scientific research to the Greeks. Ptolemy proposed that Earth was the center of the universe. (sun and planets revolve around earth) Technology Science Art Architecture 3
Roman Law An accused person was presumed to be innocent until proven guilty. The accused was permitted to face the accuser and offer a defense. Guilt had to be established through evidence. Judges were expected to interpret the laws and make fair decisions. During the Roman empire, these principles of law fostered unity and stability: Centuries later, these principles would become the basis for legal systems in Europe and the Americas. 3
Roman Mythology Religion for the Romans was a lot like it was for the Greeks. Religion was a part of their every day life. Roman NameFunction Greek Name MarsGod of War Ares JupiterChief god/King Zeus JunoQueen of gods Hera VenusLove and Beauty Aphrodite MinervaWisdom Athena MercuryMessenger Hermes PlutoUnderworld Hades NeptuneSea Poseidon Vulcan Blacksmith, god of fire Hephaestus
The Romans believed that they would become closer to their gods through the practice of rituals and sacrifices. The Romans viewed their gods and goddess much like the Greeks had done. Gods and goddesses were a part of their everyday life. They had human characteristics. The Romans felt that the gods and goddesses needed to be kept happy so that they would have a prosperous life. The Romans were fairly tolerant of other religions so far as they were not interfering with Roman religion.
Religious Diversity in the Early Empire As long as people honored Roman gods and acknowledged the divine spirit of the emperor, they were allowed to worship other gods as they pleased. After the Romans conquered Judea, they excused the monotheistic Jews from worshiping the Roman gods. Rome mistrusted Christians because they refused to make sacrifices to the emperor or honor the Roman gods. Roman officials persecuted the Christians. Many Christians became martyrs, people who suffer or die for their beliefs. 4
The Teachings of Jesus Some of Jesus’ teachings were rooted in Judaism: Belief in one God Ten Commandments Mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless Obedience to the laws of Moses Jesus also preached new beliefs: 1) Called himself the Son of God 2) Proclaimed that he brought salvation and eternal life to anyone who would believe in him 3) Jesus also emphasized God’s love and taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others. 4
Spread of Christianity Jesus’s disciples believed God’s final judgment was coming soon. Set out to spread the message. Worked mainly in Jewish communities of Palestine. Spread slowly. Appeal increased as life in the empire became more difficult. Promised hope and freedom from the penalties of sin and death. 4
Causes of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire ” Economic High taxes High inflation Lossof war loot Decline of manufacturing Decline of agriculture Social Growing divisions between rich and poor Loss of values Loss of patriotism Military German invasions High cost of defense Dependence on German troops Loss of soldiers’ loyalty to Rome Military interference with government Political Ineffective city-state system Division of empire Growing power of Eastern Empire Corruption and unstable leadership Burden of public service
There was no one thing which led to the fall of the Roman Empire It included all of the following: Economy: Devaluation of Roman currency from inflation and high military costs Military: Breakdown in military discipline from the hiring of mercenaries. Moral Decay: People lost faith in the Roman government Political Problems: The Government became corrupt Invasion: Barbarian invasions Some people also believe it may have been lead poisoning from lead pipes, it may have been a lack of technology due to slavery, the new religion of Christianity may have caused people to turn from the government... The causes were many.