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The Great War Presented by Dr. Victoria Belco, Portland State University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War Presented by Dr. Victoria Belco, Portland State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War Presented by Dr. Victoria Belco, Portland State University

2 Handouts The Road to WWI WWI lecture outline Aftermath of WWI

3 Three men in 1914 Vladimir Lenin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler

4 The Great Powers, 1914 Britain Germany France Russia Austro-Hungarian Empire Italy



7 The Road to WWI Moroccan crises Balkan crises and wars The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand





12 Not that Franz Ferdinand

13 Archduke Franz Ferdinand

14 FF and wife Sophie

15 With family

16 With elephant in Ceylon

17 In Sarajevo, June 28, 1914

18 Gavrilo Princip

19 The shot

20 Arrest of Princip

21 Going to court

22 trial


24 Funeral of FF

25 The Assassination What did the Serbian government know? What did Germany know? What did Germany want? What would France do? What should Britain have done differently?

26 The July Crisis The “German memo” (“blank check”) Austrian demands (‘the ultimatum”) The Russian assurance Threats of mobilization and secret mobilization

27 Causes: External factors Alliance system Arms race War plans Great Power competition


29 Causes: Internal factors Nationalism Austria-Hungary: nationalities “problem” Russia France England Germany

30 What did “war” mean in 1914? “This is the hour we have yearned for” – “to Paris!” “A jolly little war” “To Berlin!” “We’ll be home by Christmas!”

31 What does “total war” mean?

32 Everyone does his/her “bit”



35 The Homefront

36 Women did their “bit” in traditional and non-traditional ways






42 Women ship builders 1918

43 London 1918

44 Women’s forestry corps, Britain 1918

45 Crane operators, Britain 1918

46 Coal heavers 1917

47 Brick-making factory

48 Munitions workers 1917

49 Encouraging Enlistment in Britain








57 Hating the Enemy



60 The Battlefront









69 John Singer Sargent: Gassed, painted 1919



72 The Zimmerma n telegram – January 1917



75 US Declared War on Germany April 6, 1917



78 Signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: “no war, no peace”

79 Italian front


81 Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est, (written c. October 1917-March 1918) Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of disappointed shells that dropped behind. GAS! Gas! Quick, boys!-- An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And floundering like a man in fire or lime.-- Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,-- My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

82 London, November 11, 1918

83 NYC victory parade

84 Aftermath of WWI (“a jolly little war” / “we’ll be home by Christmas” / “to Paris!” / “to Berlin!” / “victory must be ours”) - US Civil War: 620,000 dead Battle of Gettysburg: over 51,000 casualties - Vietnam War: 50,000 US dead - World War I: @ 74 million men mobilized Allied armies: 48,000,000 mobilized; 18,000,000 casualties Central Powers: 25,500,000 mobilized; 12,400,000 casualties 8,500,000 men killed: about 6,000 per day for the 51 months, or the more than 1500 days, of the war (August 5, 1914 – November 11, 1918) 22,000,000 wounded (@ 7,000,000 permanently disabled) 12,600,000 dead from war-related causes - Battle of Verdun (February 1916-June 1916: “Bleed the French white”): France – more that 540,000 casualties (dead and wounded) 90,000 dead Germany – 430,000 casualties - Passchendaele (July 31-1917-November 1917): 245,000 British dead - Battle of the Somme (the Somme Offensive): 1,200,000 casualties Britain – 420,000 killed or wounded (60,000 the first day) 19,000 dead France – 200,000 killed or wounded Germany – 650,000 killed or wounded - Gallipoli: more than ½ of British Commonwealth forces (of 400,000) killed or wounded

85 F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tender is the Night (1934) “See that little stream,” he said. “We could walk to it in two minutes. It took the British a whole month to walk to it – a whole empire walking very slowly, dying in front and pushing forward behind. And another empire walked very slowly backward a few inches a day, leaving the dead like a million bloody rugs.”

86 Aftermath continued Paris Peace Conference 1919 Treaty of Versailles (signed June 28, 1919) – Polish Corridor – Limits to German military – Article 231: German war guilt clause – German reparations Creation of European “successor states” (esp. Poland, CZ, and Yugoslavia) League of Nations National debts in Europe Political, economic, and social instability in Europe Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler

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