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M OTIVATION Keys to Learning. C. Ross D EFINITION : MOTIVATION Motivation: the personal investment that an individual has in reaching a desired state.

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Presentation on theme: "M OTIVATION Keys to Learning. C. Ross D EFINITION : MOTIVATION Motivation: the personal investment that an individual has in reaching a desired state."— Presentation transcript:

1 M OTIVATION Keys to Learning

2 C. Ross D EFINITION : MOTIVATION Motivation: the personal investment that an individual has in reaching a desired state or outcome (Maehr & Meyer, 1997 in Ambrose et al, 2010). o In the context of learning, motivation influences the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in which students engage. (Ambrose, et al, 2010)

3 C. Ross D EFINITION : MOTIVATION Principle: Students’ motivation generates, directs, and sustains what they do. o Value o Expectancy o Environment (Ambrose et al, 2010)

4 C. Ross A W ORD A BOUT G OALS Goal refers to what the person is motivated to do. Need to remember: o Multiple goals in operation simultaneously: performance goals, learning goals, work-avoidant goals, affective goals and social goals o Students’ goals for themselves probably different from our goals for them o Students who hold multiple types of goals more successful than those with just one type

5 C. Ross MOMO Understanding Motivation: Ambrose et al, p. 80

6 C. Ross A REAS OF C ONCERN Hopeless –See value but dubious about abilities –Perceive little support from environment –Behave in helpless fashions Defiant –See value and confident of abilities –Perceive little or no support from environment –Take “I’ll show you” attitude Fragile –See value but dubious about abilities –Perceive support from environment –Protect self-esteem Feigning understanding Avoiding performance Denying difficulty Making excuses

7 C. Ross A REAS OF C ONCERN Rejecting –Care little about goal –Little confidence in abilities –Same behavior in BOTH supportive and unsupportive climate! –Students apathetic, alienated, passive –Perceive supportive efforts as coercive or pressuring Evading –See little value in goal –Confident in abilities to succeed –Same behavior in BOTH supportive and unsupportive climate –Difficulty paying attention, preoccupied –Avoids overt disapproval or stigma of poor grade by doing minimal work

8 C. Ross E NVIRONMENT Environment is the broader context (classroom, institution, family, society) in which value and expectancies operate. Who establishes environment? What can we as instructors offer with regards to environment? Are there environmental factors we cannot control? How should we focus our efforts?

9 C. Ross V ALUE Value is the (subjective) importance of a goal Three Types of Value: Attainment: satisfaction gained from mastery/accomplishment of goal or task Intrinsic: satisfaction gained from simply doing task rather than outcome Instrumental: satisfaction based on how much goal achievement or activity helps accomplish larger goal A biology student derives value from solving challenging problems (attainment), engaging her fascination with biological processes (intrinsic), and advances her chances of getting into med school (instrumental).

10 C. Ross V ALUE Value is the (subjective) importance of a goal. Who establishes value? What can we as instructors offer with regards to value? Are there value factors we cannot control? How should we focus our efforts?

11 C. Ross E XPECTANCIES Expectancies are the beliefs people hold about whether or not they expect to be successful in achieving a goal. Who establishes expectancies? What can we as instructors offer with regards to expectancies? Are there expectancy factors we cannot control? How should we focus our efforts?

12 C. Ross E XPECTANCIES Student expectations for success are based on: o Learner self-efficacy o Difficulty of the goal o Prior experience o Skill matching o Encouragement and modeling of others o Learner Beliefs Self esteem/self-confidence Nature of intelligence or ability: fixed or malleable Attribution theory

13 C. Ross A TTRIBUTION Student attributes outcomes to:

14 C. Ross E XPECTANCIES Expectancies are the beliefs people hold about whether or not they expect to be successful in achieving a goal. Who establishes expectancies? What can we as instructors offer with regards to expectancies? Are there expectancy factors we cannot control? How should we focus our efforts?

15 C. Ross E XPECTANCIES How can we help students with self-efficacy and keep them motivated? Metacognition! “Metacognitive interventions…may be an especially powerful tool in helping the “academically adrift” student find a way to get into the game, to become more aware of the kind of thinking that supports strong academic performance.” Ottenhoff, Liberal Education (handout)

16 C. Ross S VINICKI ’ S S EVEN S TRATEGIES Be a good role model of appropriate motivation. Choose learning tasks with utility, challenge and interest value. Encourage accurate student self-efficacy about the course. Base evaluation on progress or absolute level achieved to produce mastery goal orientation. Encourage attributing success to effort and interpreting mistakes as learning opportunities. Provide choice and/or control over goals or strategies to the learner. Communicate high expectations that are in line with student capabilities.

17 C. Ross BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography Ambrose, S., M. Bridges, M. DiPietro, M. Lovett, & M. Norman. (2010). How Learning Works. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cross, K. P. (2005). What Do We Know About Students’ Learning and How Do We Know It?”. Center for Studies in Higher Education. University of California, Berkeley, CSHE Davis, B.G., (1993). Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Svinicki, M. (2004). Learning and Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.


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