Presentation on theme: "Community-Based Psychological First Aid Training: Mitigating Conflict Via Early Mental Health Interventions."— Presentation transcript:
1Community-Based Psychological First Aid Training: Mitigating Conflict Via Early Mental Health Interventions
2Introduction Sign-in sheet Schedule What is your name and background? Course evaluation at the endDepending on the situation, you could use this time to discuss any of these points:When a break will be, if you’re planning to have oneLocation of restrooms and emergency exitsAsk people to turn off or silence cell phones and pagers
3What You Will Learn Today How the characteristics of crises and violence affect peopleHow stress can increase conflictWhy certain groups or individuals may need more help during and after stressful eventsPsychological First Aid to support others and reduce conflictHow to help children, adolescents and those with vulnerabilitiesHow to recognize when someone needs more helpHow to take care of yourself in stressful times
4In difficult times, friends, family and neighbors can help each other. YOU CAN HELP!In difficult times, friends, family and neighbors can help each other.Understanding and practicing Psychological First Aid will allow you to be a more effective helper for people in your community.
5The Importance of Community Support Crises, disasters and violence lead to extreme stress for the people who experience themThe impact of stressful events can last for a very long timeBUT the stress can often be reduced if survivors get help during and right after the event. This can restore people’s trust:In themselvesIn the worldIn others
6Reactions to Crises/Disasters Stress reactions are often related to an event’s:SizeCauseIf it was expected or unexpectedTiming
7Crisis/Disaster Size How big was it? How bad was it? Number of people and buildings affectedHow bad was it?Extent of damage, injuries and deathsHow long did it last?Length of the actual event, or length of time people are strongly affected by an event. It’s very hard for people to start to recover when they’re not sure the danger is over.
8Crisis/Disaster Cause NaturalThere’s no one to blame and no way to prevent itPeople often feel helpless and frightenedHuman-causedPeople often feel angry as well as frightened and helplessThey may want to punish those they think are to blame – often blaming innocent people
9Was It Expected or Not? Expected events: Unexpected events: If people get a warning, there is a chance to prepare and to take action to avoid being injuredIf people get a warning but they ignore it, they often feely guilty or ashamedUnexpected events:There is no chance to prepare, so people are more likely to be injuredThey also may feel more stress because it was so surprising
10Crisis/Disaster Timing Time and dayWhere were people when it happened?Were families together or apart?Was it light or dark?Were people asleep?Season/climateIs it very hot or very cold out?Do people have the right clothing or shelter?
11Who Was Impacted?Some people or groups often have strong reactions to stressful events and may need more assistance. This can depend on:Age (very young or very old)Gender (women often feel more stress)Family role (especially mothers trying to take care of their families)Amount of exposure to the disaster (if the person was very close to it, or in danger for a long time)Loss of family member, or injury to family memberLoss of home or possessionsPre-disaster stress: If the person was already coping with other problemsLack of resources: If the person did not have much social, financial, or personal support
12What Help Did People Receive? Reactions can also depend on how people were treated after a crisis/disaster:Did they get help with practical needs like medical care or assistance rebuilding a damaged home?Did they get help with emotional needs (support from friends and family, Psychological First Aid, professional help for those with strong reactions)?Do they feel their needs were ignored or overlooked, or that people blamed them for their situation?12
13Reactions to StressA person’s reaction will come from a combination of the characteristics of the crisis/disaster, the individual, and the response.DisastercharacteristicsIndividualcharacteristicsResponsecharacteristicsSurvivor reaction
14Common ReactionsPeople can experience many different types of reactions when they are exposed to extreme stress. These are common reactions to difficult experiences:PhysicalEmotionalThinkingBehavioralSpiritualIncreased conflict
15Reactions: Physical Jumpiness, edginess Appetite change (want to eat more or less than usual)More desire for caffeine, nicotine, alcoholHeart pounding, rapid and shallow breathing, light-headednessStomach distressTrouble sleeping (fatigue, exhaustion, insomnia)Muscle tension or painHeadacheWorsening of other health conditions
16Reactions: Emotional Anger, hostility, rage Resentment towards everyone, including those who are not to blameDepression, sadness, tearfulnessAnxiety, fear, panicGuilt, shame, self-doubtEmotional numbing - not feeling anything at allFeeling overwhelmed, hopeless, out of controlIrritability, impatienceMood swings
17Reactions: Thinking Disbelief, sense of unreality Worry Can’t stop thinking about the situationProblems with memory or concentrationCan’t focus, solve problems, or make decisionsConfusionErrors in thinking (blaming self or other when it’s not fair, all-or-nothing thinking)
18Reactions: Behavioral Avoiding reminders of the crisisSleeping a lot more or less than usualCan’t relaxWithdrawing, isolating oneself from family and communityIncreased conflict with family or co-workersWorking too much to avoid thinking about the eventCrying easilyBullying other peopleChange in sex drive
19Reactions: SpiritualChange in relationship with G_d or higher power (increase in faith, or questioning of faith)Change in religious practices (increase or decrease in prayer or attending services)Questioning of belief that the world is fairStruggle with questions about meaning, justice, fairness
20Reactions: Increased Conflict When we are stressed we cannot:Be fully aware of our own feelingsReally know what we needCommunicate our own needs clearlyAccurately read another person's nonverbal communicationHear what someone is really sayingThese factors all increase conflict!
21Reactions to LossWhen a loved person dies because of crisis or violence, survivors can feel strong emotions:If it was human-caused: anger, blameIf a warning was ignored: self-blame, guiltIf the survivor feels they should have done more: shameIf a death was sudden and unexpected: no chance to say goodbye or resolve issues with the person, or to prepare for the loss
23Helpful HelpingDescribe a difficult time in your life and a person who helped you through it.What were the qualities of that person?What did he or she say or do that helped you the most?
24Principles of Helpful Helping We should do all that we can to:Promote a sense of safetyPromote calmPromote sense of confidence and competence in self and communityPromote connectionInstill hope and faith(Hobfoll et al., 2007)
25Defining Psychological First Aid Psychological First Aid (PFA) describes a humane, supportive response to a fellow human being who is suffering from a serious crisis event and who may need support.(World Health Organization, 2011)
26Purpose of PFAPsychological First Aid actions are designed to address all of the connected needs of the survivors:PracticalPhysicalEmotional and social
27Elements of Psychological First Aid PFA is not a process, but a toolkit to be used as needed, in any order appropriateModel calmProvide warmth and acknowledgementListenBe honest and trustworthyHelp survivors help themselvesAttend to safety needsAttend to physical needsProvide information and direction to servicesProvide psychoeducationHelp survivors connectHelp survivors avoid negative connectionsAssist with traumatic griefAssist with conflict resolution
28Model CalmJust being calm when you are in contact with someone in great distress can be helpful.Disasters and violence increase physical and emotional arousal or excitement.One aim of PFA is to reduce this high arousal level by “modeling calm” - if you show people your own calm attitude and behavior, they often become less upset.By being steady you can help survivors control their own strong feelings.28
29Provide Warmth and Recognition Be respectful and show caring and concern for the survivor by being attentive and speaking in a soothing tone of voice.Do not judge the survivor’s thoughts and feelings.Do not minimize the disaster or distress:Survivors need people to see that they have experienced a stressful event and that their reactions are understandable.If their distress is not recognized and validated, survivors may not take the necessary time to rest and recover.29
30ListenIf survivors want to describe what happened to them, be prepared to listen.Do not pressure people to talk if they do not want to.Listen to both thoughts and feelings.Be ready to listen to a survivor’s feelings of pain or loss or rage or shock without getting overwhelmed yourself or changing the subject.Do not leave survivors alone if their feelings are very strong. Make sure they are with a family member, spiritual leader, or other supportive person.30
31Things to Say to Show You Are Listening “So you feel…”“I hear you saying…”“I sense you are feeling…”“You appear…”“It seems to you…”“So tell me if I am getting this right? You seem to be feeling that…”
32Be Honest and Trustworthy Only honest and genuine caring and listening is helpful for survivors.Being truthful does not mean being blunt or rude.Know your own limits so you can take a rest or break when you need to. Do not try to care for others when you are exhausted.Do not repeat or gossip about what you hear.32
33Help Survivors to Help Themselves Support survivors’ strength, courage and power so they can begin to regain a sense of control.If they are able, survivors can be encouraged to participate in helping others.Ask: “How have you gotten through tough times before?” or “What skills do you have that will allow you to get through this?”Allow survivors to determine the kind of assistance they receive and how much they want to talk about the event.33
34Attend to Safety NeedsTry to protect survivors from threats from the ongoing disaster or violence, especially those who may be so upset or disoriented that they are not able to care for themselves.Help people to find shelters or places to say that maximize safety.Support safety and stability by encouraging families to maintain their routines as best they can.34
35Attend to Physical Needs When people are very distressed, they can ignore their own injuries. Be sure that those who are hurt receive medical attention.Survivors could be offered water, hot drinks, or blankets, which provide comfort as well as helping with physical needs.If someone’s home is damaged, you may need to assist them with finding a shelter, or locating a friend or relative to stay with.35
36Provide Information and Direction to Services Survivors want and need different kinds of information (what happened, who was affected, where can I get help). If possible, provide lists of available resources.When people are very upset they may have a hard time understanding or remembering information. Speak clearly and slowly using simple language, and repeat yourself if needed.Provide only information you know is true.Rumors are very common in stressful times – encourage people to not accept or share false information.36
37PsychoeducationHelp people understand their reaction to the experience is natural and understandable:“a common reaction to an uncommon event”Share materials on stress and stress management:Teach effective ways of coping (actions that help people feel better and function better)Help people recognize when coping skills are not working. For example, smoking or using drugs or alcohol may make people feel better for a while, but do not help them function better37
38Help Survivors Connect Social support can lower stress even if the support comes from one reliable person.Survivors should be reunited with people who can provide emotional support and security:Friends, neighbors, and family can offer practical support (money, a place to stay), emotional support, and advice.Clergy, spiritual leaders, or family leaders can offer guidance and comfort.38
39Help Survivors Avoid Negative Connections Not all relationships or family members are supportive; some relationships can be sources of stress and misery.Contact with people who blame or punish the survivors, increase their anxiety, or make demands on them will not help recovery.Encourage survivors to connect with family and friends they trust.39
40Assisting Survivors after a Death There may be practical problems you can help with such as contacting family members, identifying remains or arranging funerals.However, when there are no problems to solve, you can help simply by being a calm and supportive presence.Link survivors to spiritual and family leaders.Be kind.40
41Help Survivors to Manage Conflict Conflict is decreased when survivors can:Manage their stress and stay calm.Pay attention to the feeling of others. Try to recognize and respond to the things that matter to the other person.Control their emotions and behavior.Try not to hold onto resentments and anger.Be aware of and respectful of differences.41
42Pay Special Attention to or Try to Get More Help for Those Who: Threaten to harm themselves or othersAre not thinking clearly, or seem confusedRepeat the same behavior over and overAre hysterical or panickingDo not seem connected to realityHad someone close to them killed or injured or missingHave a home that is unlivableHave a preexisting psychiatric disorderAre physically injuredHad a long or intense exposure to the event42
43Helping Those with Vulnerabilities These individuals may have issues related to mobility, cognition, sensory, and/or overall health.Be aware of their need for medications, assistive devices (like a wheelchair or hearing aid), meals, structure, other social supports.Recognize these individuals are unique even if they have similar conditions.Be clear when you communicate with them.Be aware of your own responses to working with these individuals.It may be helpful to keep a list of where these individuals live so someone can check on them.
44Helping Children and Adolescents They need special attention and care, and are not as resilient as you might thinkTheir needs will vary based on developmental age and they may regress to earlier stages in the face of disaster or violence, acting younger than they are or losing skills like toilet training.Do provide basic information to young people, but don’t add unnecessary details that may scare them.Allow children to talk about the experience if they want to, and provide supportive listening.As much as possible, allow them to interact with other children.Try to establish routines as quickly as possible, such as regular meal times and school activities.
45Take Care of YourselfEveryone who responds to a crisis or helps others in times of conflict is impacted.You need to be alert for signs of stress and distress in yourself and in others who are trying to help survivors.It is important to learn good self-care habits now so you can continue to use them during a crisis, and especially afterwardsSee the brochure, Help for the Helpers, for specific ways to practice healthy self-care45
46Practicing Psychological First Aid In groups of 3-5 (depending on size of class) read the scenario and discuss how you would apply the principles of Psychological First Aid. Someone in the group should write down your responses to share with the rest of the class at the end of the exercise.46
47Some Final Thoughts on Helping Others Be kindBe calmBe informedBe tolerantBe patientBe flexibleAsk for help when you need itTake care of yourself
48THANK YOU Questions and comments Be sure to fill out course evaluations