2Personality The Theory Conscious: Current awareness Preconscious: “Beneath the surface,” but easily retrievedUnconscious: Thoughts, memories “deep below the surface,” with great influence – thoughts/feelings you aren’t aware ofThus, human behavior largely based on “instincts” or drivesSex (Eros – the “life force”)Aggression (Thanatos – the “death force”)How do we access the unconscious?Freudian slipsDreams & “wish fulfillment” (remember manifest vs. latent content!)“Repressed” memories
5Personality The Components The Id: Present at birth, completely unconsciousBasic urges: eat, sleep, sex, defecateFocused on primary process thinking: primitive, illogical, irrational – impulsiveBased on the pleasure principle: all needs must be satisfied immediately; unsatisfied needs lead to anxietyWhat if your Id is dominant?
6Personality The Components The Superego: The “moral watchdog” Not present at birth; Freud theorized it “emerges” from the ego around 3-5 years of ageSocial standards of “right & wrong” – internalization of social normsCompares behavior against “ego ideal,” the standard of excellence“Overactive” superego may lead to excessive guilt
7Personality The Components The Ego: Controls thinking & reasoning Operates at all levels of awarenessSecondary Process Thinking: rational, realistic, can incorporate long-range planning (contrast w/ Id)Governed by reality principle: still desires gratification of Id, but based in social reality, mediate between Id & “real world”With only Id & Ego, one would be unsocial & selfish
8Personality Psychosexual Stages Assumes “driving force” behind personality development is resolution of task/challenge at each stage, rooted in unconscious thoughts/instinctsUnsuccessful = fixation, “stuck”Excessive gratification or frustrationLeads to overemphasis on needs of that period
9Stage 1: The Oral Stage (Birth-18 mos.) PersonalityStage 1: The Oral Stage (Birth-18 mos.)Source of satisfaction: mouthDuring an age of complete dependenceChallenge: weaning – rejection? Need for gratification?Fixation: lack of confidence, obsessive eating, smoking, sarcasm, passive dependence etc.
10Stage 2: The Anal Stage (18 mos.-3 yrs) PersonalityStage 2: The Anal Stage (18 mos.-3 yrs)Source of satisfaction: anusChallenge: toilet training (society’s 1st effort to regulate our bodily urges); focus is on controlFixation: obsession w/ neatness (anal retentive) or messy & disorganized (anal expulsive); hostility towards women, anxiety about sex
11Stage 3: The Phallic Stage (3-5 yrs) PersonalityStage 3: The Phallic Stage (3-5 yrs)Source of satisfaction: genitals – attachment to parent of opposite sex, jealous of same sexOedipal Complex (boys)
13Stage 4: The Genital Stage (13-19 yrs) PersonalityLatency Period (5-13 yrs)Suppression of sexual instinctsA “natural” homosexual period, prefer company of same sexEvaluating FreudUnconscious can influence behaviors, early childhood can influence adult personality, BUT:Lacks scientific evidenceMale-centeredPenis envy, castration anxiety etc. seem quite a stretch…Stage 4: The Genital Stage (13-19 yrs)Maturation of sexual desires, relationships
15Personality Development Erogenous zonesOedipus complexA boy’s sexual desirestoward his mother &feelings of jealousy andhatred for the rival father.Electra complexVice VersaIdentificationChild copes and represses such feelings and begins to identify with rival parent.FixationA strong conflict within a stage that would lock a person in that stage.
16Personality Freud & Defense Mechanisms What are they? Coping methods; unconscious defense against unpleasant emotionsPurpose is to avoid anxiety; uncomfortable thoughts & feelings in one’s unconscious create anxiety (e.g., impulses from Id threaten to get out of control) & defense mechanisms help protect your conscious mind by reducing/avoiding itOveractive Id: can I control myself?Overactive Superego: overabundance of guilt
17PersonalityThe Same Unacceptable Impulse Can Lead to Different Defense MechanismsSample Unacceptable Impulse: NegativityDefense MechanismApplicationSublimationBeing a move or restaurant clinicReaction FormationExpressing optimism & finding positives to any situationProjectionBeing sensitive to or critical of negativity in othersRationalizationBelieving the world is in a dismal state, so negativity is “justified”RegressionDoing sloppy work or whiningDenialNot accepting one’s negativity
18Personality Freud & Defense Mechanisms Repression (#1!) Anxiety-evoking thoughts, memories pushed into unconsciousSexual desires, childhood trauma, etc.“Motivated forgetting”DenialRefusal to acknowledgepainful, anxiety-producing info
19Personality Freud & Defense Mechanisms Projection Attributing one’s own unacceptable impulses, qualities unto anotherRationalizationCreating acceptable, logical reasons for things that otherwise would produce anxiety, would not be acceptable“I failed the MCAT, but I never really wanted to be a doctor anyway.”“Everyone thought Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.”“It depends what your definition of sex is.”DisplacementRedirect undesirable motives from original source to another
21Personality Freud & Defense Mechanisms Identification Dealing with anxiety by taking on the characteristics of anotherMid-life crisis as trying to take on the characteristics of a younger manRegressionReverting to childlike behaviors & defenses in response to threatening situationsIntellectualizationAvoiding the uncomfortable emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract ideasDealing with a cancer diagnosis by researching the illness extensively & becoming an “expert” rather than dealing with the emotional impact
22Personality Freud & Defense Mechanisms Reaction Formation Refusing to acknowledge or deal with uncomfortable or anxiety producing thoughts by displaying the opposite desires/behaviorsOften marked by persistent behaviorsHomophobia in response to one’s own homosexual desiresSublimationMost adaptive of the defense mechanismsConvert unacceptable/uncomfortable desires or thoughts; allows an outlet for anxiety through acceptable behaviorsWatch boxing to sublimate desire for aggressionSuck on lollipops to sublimate desire for a cigarette
23Personality Defense Mechanisms in Real Life After spending time with his mistress, a man picks up some flowers for his wife because he feels like she doesn’t love him anymore.Projection?2. A minister preaches about the evils of homosexuality, when he is gay himselfReaction Formation?3. A woman says that she is no longer mourning the death of her child, but feels anxious every time she sees a small boy.Repression?
25Neo-FreudiansNeo-Freudians are followers of Freud, but typically disagreed with him in at least one way or another
26Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists Neo-Freudians veered away from FreudPlaced more importance on conscious mind’s role in interpreting experience and in coping with environmentDoubted that sex and aggression were all consuming motivesTended to emphasize loftier motives and social interactions
27Carl Jung Jung disagreed with Freud in two major points 1. Had more positive view of human natureTry to develop potential while trying to handle their instinctual urges
28Personality Neo-Freudians Carl Jung & Analytical Psychology Coined terms “intraversion” & “extraversion”Personal Unconscious: similar to Freud’s idea of the unconsciousCollective Unconscious: shared instincts, urges, memories, & behaviors, inherited from past generations, & common to everyoneArchetype: “thought forms,” collective memories based on ancestral experiences (birth, death, power, evil, hero, mother)Persona: “mask” used to deal w/ outside world, “fake” personalityBroke w/ Freud over emphasis on sexuality
29Carl Jung Archetype themes throughout many cultures stay the same Example:Jack and the Beanstalk is similar to DavidAnd Goliath)PLOT?Batman? Superman?Such stories are common due to reoccurrence in history and storedin unconscious.Sense of self is an archetypeUse our personal and collective unconsciousto shape our personality
30Alfred Adler Felt the driving force of personalities is the desire to Overcome feelings of inferiorityExamples:NapoleonGlenn CunninghamCoined the term inferioritycomplexA pattern of avoiding feelings ofinadequacy rather than trying toovercome their sourceStarts in childhood because oneCannot take care of themselves
31Alfred AdlerAlso believed the way parents treat their child influences the styles of life they chooseOver pampering leads to self-centerednessNeglect leads to angry, hostile personIdeally children should learn courage and self-reliance from father and generosity and feelings for others from their mother
32Karen HorneyShe was a follower of Freud but disagreed with Freud in many waysStressed the importance of basic anxiety which leads to helplessnessFeelings of hostility towards parents due to anxiety and helplessness.Believed that if a child was raised in aloving environment, child would avoidparent-child conflict.Countered Freud’s assumptionof “penis envy”
33Personality Neo-Freudians Karen Horney Saw anxiety as the true motivating force; how one reacts to real or imagined dangers or threatsSaw personality as built around fighting rejectionSocial/environment issues critical, especially childhood relationshipsBelieved we all need affection, love
34Assessing Unconscious Processes To study personality there must be a pathway to the unconsciousProjective tests- personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics, like a psychological X-Ray.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- people express their feelings &interests through the stories theymake up about certain scenes.
35Testing Personality Projective Test Example Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): 20 picture cards of human figures in ambiguous situationsViewed one-by-one, “tell a story”Who does the respondent identify with? What are the “themes” of the story?
40Assessing Unconscious Processes Rorschach Inkblot Test- most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blotsScoring has improved: computer aided tool has been designed to improve agreement among raters and enhance the test’s validity
42Testing Personality Projective Test Example Rorschach Inkblot Test: best known & for a long time most frequently used (less today)“What do you see?” – open endedPatterns unique in form, color shadingDoes respondent use “mirror image”? Color? White space? Focus on certain “subjects”?
51Modern Unconscious Mind Freud was right about one thing: we indeed have limited access to all that goes on in our mindsHowever Anthony Greenwald believes it is time to abandon Freud’s idea of the unconsciousView unconscious as information processing that occurs without awarenessWe fly on auto-pilot more than we know
53Humanistic Perspective and Personality During 1960s, Humanistic perspective began to developGoes against Freud and SkinnerFreud UnconsciousSkinner behaviorism and learningHumanistic psychologists focused on the ways “healthy” people strive for self-determination and self-realization
54Humanistic Perspective and Personality PioneersAbraham Maslow and Carl RogersOffered a third force perspective that emphasized human potential
55Humanistic Perspective and Personality Maslow’s Self-Actualizing PersonMotivated by a hierarchy of needsOnce our self-esteem is met we ultimately seek self-actualization and self-transcendence
56Humanistic Perspective and Personality Decided that each of these people were self- aware and self-accepting, secure in who they wereTheir interests were problem centered rather than self-centeredDuring his study on colleges students, he speculated that those likely to become self-actualizing adults wereCompassionate towards elders & disturbed by cruelty and meanness .Had courage to be unpopular & unashamed
57Humanistic Perspective and Personality Carl Rogers’ Person Centered PerspectiveBelieved that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendenciesGrowth-promoting environment required three conditionsGenuineness, acceptance, and empathyPeople nurture growth by being genuineBeing open with their own feelings and being transparent
58Humanistic Perspective and Personality People nurture growth by being acceptingUnconditional positive regard: according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another personPeople nurture growth by empathySharing and mirroring our feelings and reflecting our meanings“Rarely do we listen with real understanding, true empathy. Yet listening, of this very special kind, is one of the most potent forces for change I know.”These three factors are the nutrients that enable people to grow.
59Humanistic Perspective and Personality Central feature of personality is one’s self-conceptSelf-concept: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question ”Who am I?”“…help others to know, accept, and be true to themselves.”
60Criticisms of Humanism Concepts are vague and subjectiveCan lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and erosion of moralsFails to appreciate the human capacity for evil.
62Bandura Proposed by Bandura Social-Cognitive views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social contextViewing nature and nurture as working together
63Learned BehaviorsSOCIAL: Believed we learn many of our behaviors either through conditioning or by observing others and modeling our behaviors after theirsCOGNITIVE: Also emphasizes the importance of mental processesWhat we think about our situation plays a factor as well
64Reciprocal Determinism Bandura views the person-environment interaction as reciprocal determinismThe interacting influences of behaviors, internal cognition, and environmentCalls these “interlocking determinates of each other”Example: Children’s TV-viewing habits (past behavior) influences their viewing preferences (internal factor), which influences how TV (environmental factor) affects their current behavior.
65Social Cognitive Perspective Personal control: the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless2 ways to study the effect of personal controlCorrelate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors and achievementsExperiment by raising or lowering peoples sense of control and noting the effects
66Social Cognitive Perspective Internal vs. External Locus of ControlI: You control your fate.E: Outside forces control your fate.Depleting and strengthening self controlSelf-control: the ability to control impulses and delay gratificationPredicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success according to June TangneySelf-control requires attention and energy
67Learned Helplessness vs. Personal Control People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as externalLearned helplessness: Helpless behavior following repeated experiences that seemed to have no control.In an experiment on learned helplessness, Seligman found that animals that were unable to change their situation for long periods of times seemed unable or unwilling to change when the possibility was opened to them.
68Outcomes of Personal Control Learned HelplessnessUncontrollablebad eventsPerceivedlack of controlGeneralizedhelpless behaviorImportant IssueNursing HomesPrisonsColleges
69Optimism vs. PessimismGood measure of how helpless or effective you feelOptimism health: outlive pessimists or live with fewer illnessesDating couples have conflicts, optimists and their partners see it as engaging constructivelyExcessive Optimism = not a good thing!
70The Trait PerspectiveBelief that personality is defined by specific characteristics, or traits… (Genetic emphasis)Trait: a characteristic of personality (combination of traits = personality)Viewed as stable and motivates behavior in keeping with the trait (lazy, friendly, etc.)Nature! “You are who you are!”Gordon Allport (1919) pioneer: defined personality in terms of specific traits / identifiable behavior patterns
71Personality Inventory A self-report questionnaire (true-false or agree-disagree items)designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviorsused to assess personality by identifying specific traitsObjectively graded / assessedUsed by most all personality theoristsFactor analysis: statistical procedure used to identify clusters of questions (Example: strong correlations between social, friendly, talkative = Extraversion as basic personality trait
72Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory Most popular inventory in corporate sector89 of 100 largest corporations : 2.5 million/yearColleges: Career placement office
73Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire Hans Eyesenck: two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variationUNSTABLESTABLEcholericmelancholicphlegmaticsanguineINTROVERTEDEXTRAVERTEDMoodyAnxiousRigidSoberPessimisticReservedUnsociableQuietSociableOutgoingTalkativeResponsiveEasygoingLivelyCarefreeLeadershipPassiveCarefulThoughtfulPeacefulControlledReliableEven-temperedCalmTouchyRestlessAggressiveExcitableChangeableImpulsiveOptimisticActive
74Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI: Used to assess abnormal personality / emotional disordersHysteria(uses symptoms to solve problems)Masculinity/femininity(interests like those of other sex)T-score12345678910Hypochondriasis(concern with body symptoms)Depression(pessimism, hopelessness)Psychopathic deviancy(disregard for social standards)Paranoia(delusions, suspiciousness)Psychasthenia(anxious, guilt feelings)Schizophrenia(withdrawn, bizarre thoughts)Hypomania(overactive, excited, impulsive)Social introversion(shy, inhibited)ClinicallysignificantrangeAftertreatment(no scoresin the clinicallysignificant range)Before(anxious,depressed,anddisplayingdeviantbehaviors)
75Testing Personality Examples of Objective Personality Tests: MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory): far & away most widely used567 items: true/false/cannot sayChecks for consistency – geared toward assessing validity (e.g. lying, defensiveness, too many “cannot say”)Used to diagnose personality disorders16PF (187 items – Cattell’s “16 Factors”)NEO (built around the “Big 5”Edwards Personal Preference ScheduleMiller Motivation Schedule (single trait)
76Testing Personality Projective Tests Unlimited number of response to ambiguous stimuli: respondent projects his/her characteristic concerns, conflicts, & desires on to the stimulus, allowing the examiner to draw conclusions about the respondent’s personalityAdvantages:Less tension than a “test” situationTrue purpose unclear, less “faking”May uncover unconscious thoughts, feelingsDisadvantages:Very subjective, unstandardized; scoring may differ from one examiner to anotherNeed highly trained examiner
78Personality First-Borns: Have to grow up fast Confident, perfectionist, self- reliantComfortable w/ adultsLast-Born:Crave attention, people- orientedMay feel they’re not taken seriouslyTend to be impatient, temperamental, yet carefreeMiddle-Child:Little recognition, respectMay feel they don’t “belong”Most balanced; family “mediator”Prone to peer pressure, most vulnerableOnly-Children:Much like first-born (reliable, etc.)May have trouble relating to peers, have to adapt to an adult’s world
79Self-Serving Bias A readiness to perceive oneself favorable. People accept more responsibility for successes than failures.Appears to be adaptive as it wards off extreme depression.
80Does culture play a part in our personality (according to humanistic psychologists)? Individualism: giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals. Defining your identity in terms of yourself.More privacy, more accepting of different lifestyles, people feel free to switch jobs, churches, and homes.Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of a group and defining your identity as part of that group.Less divorce, homicide, stress-related disease, and loneliness