Personal Details Father: Jonathan Townley Crane (Minister in Methodist Episcopal Church) Mother: Mary Helen Peck Crane Wife: Cora Taylor Youngest of fourteen children Grew up surrounded by writers (parents, two brothers were journalists) After school, he wrote short stories for newspapers The Red Badge of Courage led to instant fame Died due to multiple hemorrhages at age of 28
Progressive Era (1890-1920) a period of social activism and political reform in the United States family was the foundation of the idea that the government must work to strengthen and enhance the family Prohibition favorable attitude toward urban-industrial society, belief in mankind's ability to improve the environment and conditions of life technology use and creation of standard working hours, families had more leisure time
Naturalism : literary movement taking place from the 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character Realism : early 20th-century idea in art, music and literature that showed through these different types of work, reflections of the time period. Impressionism: influenced by the European Impressionist art movement, many writers adopted a style that relied on associations. Utilized lots of imagery narrative vividness and sense of immediacy Influenced by Hamlin Garland Style similar to Frank Norris, Jack London, and Theodore Dreiser Style & Technique
Ideas vs. Realities Spiritual crises vs. Fear Extreme isolation from society, community, God, nature Religion War & Rebellion portray humans as helpless or nearly helpless victims of natural and social forces Nature's indifference to humanity, Fallen humanity Betrayal, guilt, & repentance The physical, emotional, and intellectual responses of people under extreme pressure Major Themes
Henry James H.G. Wells Joseph Conrad Ernest Hemingway Crane Influenced…
Maggie – a foil to the social upbringing Leading to her downfall and rejection Paying the price for being “revolutionary” Alcoholism – degradation of society Is this a parody or satire of society? Morality versus Achievement Maggie A Girl of the Streets
“Maggie is an expose of the harmful consequences of Social Darwinism upon the lives of the working class of New York City tenement. It is driven by a progressive impulse that anticipates growth of Progressive politics during the early twentieth century. It is a formidable exemplar of the use of fictional resources to advocate social justice.” ~ Phelps, G. “Fiction and Politics: The Progressive Impulse in Stephen Crane’s Maggie, A Girl of the Streets.” University of Iowa. http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1272&context=ijls Maggie, A Girl of the Streets
Crane Homework A youth in apparel that glittered Went to walk in a grim forest. There he met an assassin Attired all in garb of old days; He, scowling through the thickets, And dagger poised quivering, Rushed upon the youth. "Sir," said this latter, "I am enchanted, believe me, To die, thus, In this medieval fashion, According to the best legends; Ah, what joy!" Then took he the wound, smiling, And died, content. In 150-200 words, identify the connections between Maggie and the poem. Focus on Crane’s perceptions of society. Use at least one direct example to fortify your argument.