Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) classified as a mental disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) a common anxiety disorder that people develop from extreme fear, helpless, intense horror, or a traumatic event
Person has been exposed to a traumatic event Experienced or witnessed a life threatening event Response involves intense fear, helplessness, and horror
Classified into three main types of symptoms: intrusive memories (re-experiencing) Avoiding and emotional numbing Hyper arousal and anxiety
Re-experiencing the traumatic event Consist of: flashbacks, nightmares, and feelings of distress, and visual intrusions Visual Intrusions are most prevalent It is the most prevalent symptom for those with PTSD. Victim connects event with long-lasting belief ex. : girl being raped and believing she will never be able to get married and have children
Reduction in ability to resist impact of event is in connection with high frequency of intrusive memories (Verwoerd, Wessel & Jong, 2009). High emotional arousal when intrusive memories, flashbacks,& nightmares take place. (Vickers, 2005) Changes in trauma history are hard to change because of cognitive/behavioral processes (Ehlers & Clark,2000)
Sometimes Avoidance cluster of PTSD is divided into two parts: Avoidance Emotional numbing Avoidance symptom includes: Avoiding thoughts and feelings dealing with traumatic events Emotional Numbing includes: Loss of interest in important activities Difficulties in maintaining positive feelings/relationships
Parent-child bond is impaired because of avoidance (Lauterbach, Bak, Reiland, Mason, Lute, & Earls, 2007) Results in emotional numbing & creates strain on the bond/weakens relationship Individuals with high levels of PTSD at risk of being less satisfied poor parent-child relationship quality
Attachment organization determine individual differences in process and coping strategies for intrusive symptoms and physiological arousal following exposure to trauma (Nye, Katzman, Bell, Kilpatrick, Brainard, and Haaland,2008) Levels of numbing emerges among male combat veterans more severely than levels among civilian trauma victims Vietnam combat veterans are most likely to develop avoidance symptoms
A psychiatry definition of long term anxiety is: a relatively permanent state of worry and nervousness occurring in a variety of mental disorders, usually accompanied by compulsive behavior or attacks of panic. On the other hand, anxiety by itself is defined as a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some misfortune.
Three main causes of anxiety include: Genetics Brain chemistry Environmental factors Negative effects of anxiety are seen not only in emotional and physical health but also through impairments in educational, social, and occupational functioning, as well as in overall quality of life.
Some type of anxiety disorder contributes to the development of PTSD (Taylor, McKay, Abramowitz,& Taylor, 2010) Sexually abused women who developed PTSD have high rates of self-injurious behavior ( Weaver, Chard, Mechanic,& Etzel, 2004) Children who have been sexually abused and receive Psychological care (within 1 year), develop less symptoms of PTSD (Ozbaran,Eremis,Bukusoglu,Bildik,Tamar,&Ecran, 2009)
Factors of developing PTSD include: Substance abuse Emotional, physical,& sexual abuse Being an immigrant Victims of religious/ethnic prosecution (especially among women) Being a combat veteran Being a college student with traumatic history The quality of parental relationships among people who have been diagnosed with PTSD
Asmundson, G. J. G., Stapleton, J. A., & Taylor, S. (2004). Are avoidance and numbing distinct PTSD symptom clusters? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(6), 467-475. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10960-004-5795-7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10960-004-5795-7 Choi, H., Klein, C., Shin, M., & Lee, H. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse. Violence Against Women, 15(8), 933-951. doi:10.1177/1077801209335493 Ehlers, A., Hackmann, A., Steil, R., Clohessy, S., Wenninger, K., & Winter, H. (2002). The Nature of Intrusive Memories After Trauma; The Warning Signal Hypothesis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 995-1002. Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A Cognitive Model of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345. Elhai, J. D., Gray, M. J., Docherty, A. R., Kashdan, T. B., & Kose, S. (2007). Structural validity of the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist among college students with a trauma history. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(11), 1471-1478. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260507305569 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260507305569 Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010). Depression, hostility, posttraumatic stress disorder, and inflammation: The corrosive health effects of negative mental states. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from PsycINFO
Lauterbach, D., Bak, C., Reiland, S., Mason, S., Lute, M. R., & Earls, L. (2007). Quality of parental relationships among persons with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2), 161-172. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20194http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20194 Norris, A. E., & Aroian, K. J. (2008). Avoidance symptoms and assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in arab immigrant women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(5), 471-478. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20363http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20363 Nye, E. C., Katzman, J. W., Bell, J. B., Kilpatrick, J., Brainard, M., & Haaland, K. Y. (2008). Attachment organization in vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Attachment and Human Development, 10(1), 41-57. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616730701868613http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616730701868613 Odlaug, B. L., Mahmud, W., Goddard, A., & Grant, J. E. (2010). Anxiety disorders. In J. E. Grant, & M. N. Potenza (Eds.), Young adult mental health. (pp. 231-254). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from PsycINFO Ozbaran, B., Erermis, S., Bukusoglu, N., Bildik, T., Tamar, M., Ercan, E. S., et al. (2009). Social and emotional outcomes of child sexual abuse: A clinical sample in turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(9), 1478-1493. doi:10.1177/0886260508323663 Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Riggs, D. S., Murdock, T., & Walsh, W. (1992). A Prospection of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Rape Victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 455-475. Simpson, T. L., Jakupcak, M., & Luterek, J. A. (2006). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences among patients with substance use disorders and PTSD: The centrality of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 481- 491. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20128http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20128 Taylor, S. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In D. McKay, J. S. Abramowitz & S. Taylor (Eds.), Cognitive- behavioral therapy for refractory cases: Turning failure into success. (pp. 139-153). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from PsycINFO Verwoerd,J., Wessel,I. & Jong,PJ. 2009). Individual Differences in experiencing Intrusive Memories. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2009 Jun;40(2):189-201. Epub 2008 Sep 9. Vickers, B. (2005). Cognitive Model of the Maintenance and Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Applied to Children and Adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10(2), 217-234. Weaver, T. L., Chard, K. M., Mechanic, M. B., & Etzel, J. C. (2004). Self-injurious behaviors, PTSD arousal, and general health complaints within a treatment-seeking sample of sexually abused women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(5), 558-575. doi:10.1177/0886260504262965 Zetsche, U., Ehring, T., & Ehlers, A. (2009). The Effects of Rumination on Mood and Intrusive Memories After Exposure to Traumatic Material: An Experimental Study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 499-514.
Analicia did the PTSD DSM-IV Criteria slide, the Intrusive Memories slide, the Classification slide, and included some studies from her part of the Literature Review. She put the PowerPoint together and included the pictures. Marivel Lopez contributed the Introduction slide and the hyper arousal and anxiety slide. She also included some of the relevant studies from the Literature Review. Khae Saechao contributed the Avoidance and Emotional numbing slide and the slide with the relevant studies from the Literature Review. She also contributed the Vietnam Combat Veterans slide.