10-3 CHAPTER 10 MOTIVATION, PERSONALITY, AND EMOTION
10-4 The Nature of Motivation Motivation Motivation is the reason for behavior. motive A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. There are numerous theories of motivation, and many of them offer useful insights for the marketing manager.
10-5 The Nature of Motivation Two useful motivation theories Two useful motivation theories: 1.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms. 2.McGuire’s Psychological Motives A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific aspects of consumer behavior.
10-6 The Nature of Motivation Based on four premises: 1.All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction. 2.Some motives are more basic or critical than others. 3.The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated. 4.As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
10-7 The Nature of Learning and Memory Marketing Strategies and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
10-8 The Nature of Motivation McGuire developed a classification with16 categories Two criteria determine four categories: Is the mode of motivation cognitive or affective? Is the motive focused on preservation of the status quo or on growth? Four categories further subdivided: Is this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment? Does this behavior help the individual achieve a new internal or a new external relationship to the environment?
10-9 McGuire’s Four General Categories Cognitive motives : focus on the person’s need for being adaptively oriented toward the environment and achieving a sense of meaning. Affective motives : deal with the need to reach satisfying feeling states and to obtain personal goals. Preservation-oriented motives : emphasize the individual as striving to maintain equilibrium. Growth motives : emphasize development
10-10 The Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Four General Categories McGuire’s Four General Categories: 1.Cognitive Preservation Motives 2.Cognitive Growth Motives 3.Affective Preservation Motives 4.Affective Growth Motives
10-11 Nature of Motivation 1. Cognitive Preservation Motives Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Attribution Theory Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) McGuire’s Psychological Motives
10-12 Nature of Motivation 2. Cognitive Growth Motives Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) McGuire’s Psychological Motives
10-13 Nature of Motivation 3. Affective Preservation Motives Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) McGuire’s Psychological Motives
10-14 Nature of Motivation 4. Affective Growth Motives Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling (passive, external) McGuire’s Psychological Motives
10-15 Applications in Consumer Behavior need for assertion The Mercedes-Benz ad provides an excellent example of targeting women high in need for assertion They are competitive achievers, seeking success, admiration, and dominance. Important to them are power, accomplishment, and esteem. Courtesy Mercedes Benz USA, Inc.
10-16 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy motive satisfactionproblem solutions Consumers do not buy products; instead they buy motive satisfaction or problem solutions. Managers must discover the motives that their product and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these motives. Do marketers create needs?
10-17 do demand Marketers do create demand! Demand Demand is the willingness to buy a particular product or service. caused It is caused by a need or motive, but it is not the motive. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
10-18 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Manifest motives Manifest motives are motives that are known and freely admitted. Latent motives Latent motives are either unknown to the consumer or are such that he/she is reluctant to admit them. Projective techniques Projective techniques are designed to provide information on latent motives. Discovering Purchase Motives
10-19 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Latent and Manifest Motives in a Purchase Situation
10-20 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation Research Techniques
Indirect appeals are frequently used for latent motives 1 Product advertising must communicate multiple benefits 2 Direct appeals are often effective for manifest motives Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Multiple Motives
10-23 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Three types of motivational conflict: 1.Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict A choice between two attractive alternatives 2.Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict A choice with both positive and negative consequences 3.Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict A choice involving only undesirable outcomes Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation Conflict
10-24 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Involvement Involvement is a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting. Motivation and Consumer Involvement It influences numerous consumer behaviors and thus… It influences marketers’ strategies.
10-25 Personality Personality Personality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. motivations consumer behavior personality While motivations are the energizing and directing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides and directs the behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations.
10-26 Personality Trait theories examine personality as an individual difference, allowing marketers to segment consumers on these differences. Trait theories assume 1. 1.All individuals have internal characteristics or traits related to action tendencies, and 2. 2.There are consistent and measurable differences between individuals on those characteristics.
10-27 Personality 1.Multitrait Approach Five-Factor Model.The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. 2.Single Trait Approach Consumer EthnocentrismConsumer Ethnocentrism Need for CognitionNeed for Cognition Consumers’ Need for UniquenessConsumers’ Need for Uniqueness
10-28 Personality Multitrait personality theory identifies several traits that in combination capture a substantial portion of the personality of the individual. Multitrait Approach Five-Factor Model The Five-Factor Model is commonly used by marketers, which identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning.
10-29 Personality The Five-Factor Model of Personality
10-30 Personality Single trait theories emphasize one trait as being particularly relevant. They do not suggest that other traits are nonexistent or unimportant. Rather, they study a single trait for its relevance to a set of behaviors. Single Trait Approach
10-31 Personality Examples of Single-Trait Theories NeuroticismVanity Trait Anxiety Locus of Control Sensation Seeking Compulsive Buying Materialism Affect Intensity Self- Monitoring
10-32 Personality Three additional traits: 1.Consumer Ethnocentrism Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. 2.Need for Cognition (NFC) Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking. 3.Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods.
10-33 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Other times, consumers use products to bolster an area of their personality where they feel weak. Sometimes consumers choose products that fit their personality.
10-34 Brand image Brand image is what people think of and feel when they hear or see a brand name. Brand personality Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice
10-35 The Use of Personality in marketing Practice Dimensions of Brand Personality
10-36 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Three important advertising tactics: 1.Celebrity Endorsers 2.User Imagery 3.Executional Factors Communicating Brand Personality
10-37 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Celebrity endorsers Celebrity endorsers are often a useful way to personify a brand. The characteristics and meaning of the celebrity can transfer to the brand. Communicating Brand Personality
10-38 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice User imagery User imagery involves showing a typical user along with images of the types of activities they engage in while using the brand. User imagery helps to define who the typical user is in terms of their traits, activities, and emotions. Communicating Brand Personality
10-39 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Executional factors Executional factors go beyond the core message to include “how” it is communicated, such as the “tone” of the ad (serious vs. quirky) appeal used (fear vs. humor) logo and typeface characteristics (scripted font may signal sophistication) pace of the ad media outlet chosen Communicating Brand Personality
10-40 Emotion Emotion Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling. Emotions Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior. They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and personality. Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion. affect intensity Personality also plays a role, e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer trait referred to as affect intensity.
10-46 Marketers have always used emotions to guide the following on an intuitive level: product positioning sales presentations, and advertising However, deliberate, systematic study of the relevance of emotions in marketing strategy is relatively new. Emotions and Marketing Strategy
10-47 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion Arousal as a Product Benefit Consumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. Emotion Reduction as a Product Benefit Marketers design or position many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions.
10-48 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion in Advertising Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities. Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal. Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself. Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference through classical conditioning. Emotion may operate via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision relevant.