2Agenda Define the different types of bullying What’s going on in Washoe CountyEtiology of bullyingCharacteristics of bullies & victims of bullyingHow you can helpResources
3Sneeches by Dr SeussNow, the Star-Belly Sneetches had bellies with stars. The Plain-Belly Sneetches had none upon thars. Those stars weren’t so big. They were really so small. You might think such a thing wouldn’t matter at all.
4What is bullying? Bullying is difficult to identify – Why? PerceptionMust be a power differentialMust be repeatedActions must be intentional (Olweus, 1993)Or not… Humor, teasing, no power differential, no intention (Scaglinone & Scaglione, 2006)
5Bullying by the Numbers 160,000- estimated number of U.S. students who skip school daily to avoid being bullied32%- students who report being bullied at school during the school year86%- gay or lesbian students who report being bullied70%- teachers surveyed who say that educators “almost always” intervene when bullying occurs35%- 9th graders who believe their teachers are interested in trying to stop bullying66%- bullying victims who believe school professionals responded poorly to the bullying they observed10-20%- bystanders who provide any real help
6Is it happening here? Climate Survey from WCSD In the past 30 days in WCSD (student report) among students who reported being bullied24% physically bullied on bus22% verbally bullied on the bus13% physically bullied in school27% verbally bullied in schoolPercentage of students targeted at school (student report)by another student24% targeted about dress44% targeted because of a physical characteristic50% of MS employees rated bullying among students as a high concernWashoe County Climate Survey Report:
7In December, the district began to keep more specific stats on cyberbullying and sexting. Elementary school reports: 127Middle school reports: 302High school reports: 503Online bullying reported by students and school staff in Washoe County is up as much as 30 percent because of a campaign to make students and parents more aware of its effects, school officials and students say.
8SB 276State Sen. David Parks and and former state Sen. Sheila Leslie, D-Reno, successfully sponsored Senate Bill 276.The bill included training programs for educator and school staff on the prevention of bullying, cyber bullying, harassment and intimidation in public schools.It requires each school to create a safety team to organize preventive and intervention training.It also requires investigations of reported incidents and calls for collaboration among the school board and the school safety team to prevent, identify and address the reported incidents.
9Types of Bullying Direct vs. Indirect Verbal – Teasing, Name calling, racial names, gossipPhysical – Threats or actual violence, pinching, hitting, butt slappingSocial/Relational – Leaving someone out, gossip, destroying reputation, manipulating relationshipsCyber bullying – Facebook, Twitter, , text, sextingHazing – rite of passage?
10Cyber bullyingWhy is cyber bullying different from the other types of bullying?Anonymous, a global community, re-victimizes the victimThe use of electronic forms of communication by an individual or group to engage repeatedly in sending or posting content about an individual or group that a reasonable person would deem cruel, vulgar, threatening, embarrassing, harassing, frightening, or harmful (Beale & Hall, 2007).Direct- messages are transmitted to the victim from the bullyIndirect- the bully enlists others to bully the victim
11Cyber Bullying Prevalence 90% of youth aged yrs are active on the internet on a daily basis(Pew Research Center)More than 50% of youth yrs have personal cell phones (Raine, 2005).Media usage, including time spent using a computer, among 8-18 yr olds is up 2.25 hours in just the last 5 yrs. (Rideout, 2010)50% had seen or heard of a website bashing of another student75% had visited a website bashing
12Prevalence Cont’90% of middle school students they polled had their feelings hurt online65% of their students between 8-14 have been involved directly or indirectly in a cyber bullying incident as the cyber bully, victim or friend40% had their password stolen and changed by a bully (locking them out of their own account) or sent communications posing as them
13What can you do about cyber bullying? Tell an administratorEncourage parental involvement in monitoring their son/daughter’s online usageAdvise the student to:StopSaveBlockTell
14SextingNot just on phones- Sexting can be done on any media-sharing device or technology - including and the Web. Teens have been convicted for child porn distribution for ing sexually explicit photos to each other.IT’S ILLEGAL! Sending nude or sexually suggestive photos of oneself that is under age. May result in being charged with producing or distributing child pornography and having to register as a sex offender. If he/she keeps them on their phone or computer they could be charged with possession. If they go to someone in another state (and that happens very easily), it is a federal felony.
15Sexting cont’Many Causes- In some cases, kids are responding to peer pressure in a form of cyber bullying or pressure from a boyfriend or girlfriend (they break up, and sometimes those photos get sent around out of revenge). Sometimes it's impulsive behavior, flirting, or even blackmail. It's always a bad idea.REPORT- Call Law enforcement immediately!Tell them to stop, block and save!
17But, because they had stars, all the Star-Belly Sneetches Would brag, “We’re the best kind of Sneetch on the beaches.” With their snoots in the air, they would sniff and they’d snort “We’ll have nothing to do with the Plain-Belly sort!” And, whenever they met some, when they were out walking, They’d hike right on past them without even talking. When the Star-Belly children went out to play ball, Could a Plain Belly get in the game? Not at all. You only could play if your bellies had stars And the Plain-Belly children had none upon thars.
18Etiology of BullyingSocial Learning Theory: children learn behaviors from their environment and behaviors can then be reinforced in different ways (Bandura, 1977).Examples?Aggression & violence from parents, media, peersA child that grows up in a hostile environment views the world as a hostile environmentReinforcement acts as a propeller for violence and leads to adult violence (Mihalic & Elliot, 1977).Difference between boys and girls?Benefit component
19Etiology cont’Studies have shown that children & adults may behave more aggressively after viewing someone else act aggressivelyStudents that are insecure view their bullying classmates as more popular- they also see the “benefits” that these students receive from the behaviorDecreased sense of responsibility when more are involvedBystander effect….
20Bullies are much like performers, she tells the crowd Bullies are much like performers, she tells the crowd. Their audience, she says, are bystanders, "just sitting there watching, right? So they're not saying, 'fight, fight, fight,' — but they're also not doing anything.” "So who are they helping?" she asks. "The bully, right?” ~ Erica Newell on NPR today
21Etiology cont’Attachment Theory: attachment in early life provides a foundation for future behaviors, as a child will continue to expect others to react to them how their early caregivers did (Bowlby)Adults who were bullied as children tend to have difficulties with attachment in romantic relationships and an increase in anxious attachmentStudies have shown that bullies are more likely to develop anxious and insecure attachments than non-involved childrenBullies acting out of insecurity
22Characteristics of Bullies Perceives solving problems through violence is positivePopular & average to high self esteemDifficulty controlling aggressionOften bullied or teased at homePoor school performanceDrug or alcohol useGang affiliationDespite popularity, bullies often lack close, long-term relationships with friendsLong term concern of criminal behaviorBullying children of either sex are more likely to have parents who have marital problems or conflicts at home, have been bullies themselves, exhibit inconsistent or over permissive approaches to child rearing, and lack sensitivity to other peopleBullies are more likely to be hyperactive, disruptive, extroverted, have higher neuroticism scores, lower IQs, and below-average reading achievement than controls
23Characteristics of Victims Younger and physically smaller than their aggressorDistress at home (parental abuse or misconduct)Families of male victims tend to be over protective and close while families of female victims tend to lean towards unhealthy emotional abuseUnpopular at school among both peers and adults & worry about going to schoolPassive victims are anxious, cautious, insecure and quiet – more likely to cry and withdrawal when attackedLow self esteemMales – bad at sportsShameDepressionPsychosomatic symptomsViolenceAs an adultSocial phobia, body image issues
24Boys and girls bully differently Both boys and girls bully verbally.Boys may use more aggression, but this is changingBoys use more direct tactics – physically, relationallyGirls are aggressive, but use more indirect tacticsGirls bully in groupsGirls are more likely to bully other girls (but will bully boys) while boys will bully both girls and boys
25Signs a kid is being bullied Unexplainable injuriesLost or destroyed clothing, books, electronics, or jewelryFrequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or faking illnessChanges in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or binge eating. Kids may come home from school hungry because they did not eat lunch.Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmaresDeclining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork, or not wanting to go to schoolSudden loss of friends or avoidance of social situationsFeelings of helplessness or decreased self esteemSelf-destructive behaviors such as running away from home, harming themselves, or talking about suicide
26Signs a kid is bullying others Get into physical or verbal fightsHave friends who bully othersAre increasingly aggressiveGet sent to the principal’s office or to detention frequentlyHave unexplained extra money or new belongingsBlame others for their problemsDon’t accept responsibility for their actionsAre competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity
27Why kids don’t ask for help Bullying can make a child feel helpless. Kids may want to handle it on their own to feel in control again. They may fear being seen as weak or a tattletale.Kids may fear backlash from the kid who bullied them.Bullying can be a humiliating experience. Kids may not want adults to know what is being said about them, whether true or false. They may also fear that adults will judge them or punish them for being weak.Kids who are bullied may already feel socially isolated. They may feel like no one cares or could understand.Kids may fear being rejected by their peers. Friends can help protect kids from bullying, and kids can fear losing this support.
29Empathy“Empathy means entering the private perceptual world of the other and becoming thoroughly at home in it. It involves being sensitive, moment to moment, to the changing felt meanings which flow in this other person, to the fear or rage or tenderness or confusion or whatever, that he/she is experiencing. It means temporarily living in his/her life, moving about in it delicately without making judgments…” ~ Carl Rogers
30Solution-Focused Therapy Kim Berg & Steve de Shazer Focuses on solutions and the child’s resources, with an emphasis on child developing strategies to solve their problems.Shift from being a victim to taking a stand creates optimism, self-belief and hope that their situation is changeable.Short term, you don’t take sides or label students bullies or victims, and does not presuppose judgment on the cause of the behavior.A team effort to change the climate within our schools!
31Case StudyClara, a 12-year-old girl, presented to the school nurse (Ann) in tears. She said that the boys in her class always followed her during break times and were being nasty towards her and calling her nick-names. The worst thing for Clara was not having any friends at school. Clara told the school nurse that she could not cope with this situation anymore. The school nurse asked Clara if she had any suggestions on how she could stop this name calling and isolation, but Clara had none. The following conversation then took place between Clara & Ann.
32Ann: ‘Can you remember any day that you enjoyed being at school? What happened that day? Who wereyou with?’Clara: ‘Well, I remember one day two weeks agoI enjoyed being at school because that day one ofthe bullies was absent and Iris, a new girl, started in our class. She did not know any other kids, so she asked me if she could join me. That was a really nice day!’Focus on past successes & exceptions to the problem
33Ann: ‘Are there any other girls you like being with in school?’Clara: ‘Susan use to be nice to me when Alice wasnot around and Cheryl in the other class can alsobe nice sometimes.’Exceptions to the problem
34Ann: ‘Would it be okay for you if I asked these girls along to a meeting with you in a group? Wecan then discuss what to do to help you have abetter time at school?’Clara: ‘I really would like that!’Further strategy & plan for the future
35If you have encountered a bullying situation among children/adolescents, how did you handle it?