Presentation on theme: "Personality and Attitudes"— Presentation transcript:
1Personality and Attitudes Section 4:Personality and Attitudes
2Leaders are ReadersPeter Drucker (1974)- Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices“An employer has no business with a man’s personality. It is immoral as well as an illegal intrusion of privacy. It is an abuse of power. Employment is a specific contract calling for a specific performance…an employee owes no “loyalty”, he owes no “love” and no “attitudes”—he owes performance and nothing else.”
3The Meaning of Personality Definition:The unique qualities of an individual and how those qualities affect understanding of themselves and othersThe Role of Heredity and the BrainExternal appearance – due to geneticsInternal characteristics – nature vs. nurture – Twin Studies show that 40% are fixed…60% developable
4What is Personality? How would you describe it? Is it inherited? Are you more like your mom or dad?Does it change over time?Does it change depending on who you are with?
5Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes7777
6Personality- Summary The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques EvaluationPsychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-testbetween pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul-impulses and social restraints motivations tural impactTrait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit-influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under-as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability(b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situationpatterns to situationHumanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory thatabout oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporaryone’s experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticizedas subjective and sometimesnaively self-centered andoptimisticSocial-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in-people and their situation, of people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning,colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s cognition, and social behavior,control behavior in particular criticized as underestimatingsituations the importance of emotions and enduring traits
7Start with Nature, Then Add Nurture How much of personality is based on genetics?How much of your personality was developed, learned, strengthened over time?Socialization trains us how to act in relationship to others.Parents are our first teachers.
9Socialization Tactics that Change Personality Challenging jobsRelevant TrainingTimely and consistent feedbackMentoring relationshipsOrientation programsWork group moraleSocialization does have a long run impact, but not on everything.
10Introduction to Personality Traits Thousands of “Traits”Significant OverlapFutile to Study PersonalityBarrick and Mount Propose the “Big 5”Big 5 now Widely Accepted and UsedOther Personality Traits or “Individual Differences” Still Researched
11Big Five Personality Traits Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997):888
12Core Self Evaluation Traits Self-EsteemYour belief as to your competence and your imageHigh self-esteem – positive attitudes, feelings, and satisfactionLocus of ControlGeneralized Self EfficacyNeuroticism (emotional stability)
13Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-EsteemFeelings of Self WorthSuccess tendsto increaseself-esteemFailure tendsto decreaseself-esteem10111111
14Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of ControlInternalExternalPeople and circumstances control my fate!I control whathappens to me!8999
15Outcomes of Personal Control Learned HelplessnessUncontrollablebad eventsPerceivedlack of controlGeneralizedhelpless behaviorImportant IssueNursing HomesPrisonsColleges
16Personality Characteristics in Organizations Generalized Self-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacyPrior experiences and prior successBehavior models (observing success)PersuasionAssessment of current physical & emotional capabilities9101010
17Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situationsHigh self monitorsflexible: adjust behavior according to the situation and the behavior of otherscan appear unpredictable & inconsistentLow self monitorsact from internal states rather than from situational cuesshow consistencyless likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback11121212
18Make a job-related geographic move Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self monitorsHigh-self monitorsGet promotedAccomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central positions in social networksChange employersSelf-promoteMake a job-related geographic moveDemonstrate higher levels of managerial self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
19Leaders are Readers Swim with Sharks Without Being Eaten Alive Harvey B. Mackay (2005)“…to connect with celebrities you need to avoid the “fan syndrome” and instead talk to them about their interests.”
20Personality Characteristics in Organizations Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general12131313
21Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strongsituation canoverwhelm the effectsof individual personalitiesby providing strong cuesfor appropriatebehavior13141414
22Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strongpersonalitieswill dominatein a weaksituation14151515
23How is Personality Measured? Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.161616
24Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Carl Jung’s workPeople are fundamentally differentPeople are fundamentally alikePeople have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgmentBriggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences171717
26Does Personality Matter? Big 5, CSET, MBTIMatter in:Certain jobs (sales, QA, leadership)At certain times (e.g., status quo, crisis)More than performance?HonestyTheftAbsenteeismTurnoverCommitment/Satisfaction
27Discussion QuestionsDo you feel organizations should hire people based upon their personality characteristics?What are the issues with this?When people are hired into a job (e.g., engineering) do you think the personality is attracted to the job, or the job shapes the personality? Why?“I didn’t used to me this way until I started working here.”
28Today’s Learning Objectives Describe the meaning of attitudes and their emotional, informational, and behavioral components.Explain the antecedents of work-related attitudes, the functions they perform, and how they are changed.
29The Nature and Dimensions of Attitudes Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some objectCharacteristics of AttitudesThey tend to persist unless something is done to change them.They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable.They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.
30Attitude Model genetics Informational/ Cognitive (i.e. beliefs) BehaviorsocializationAffective(i.e. emotions)Measurable inthe brain with fMRIobservablelearning
31Job Attitudes and Actual Behavior The belief, attitude, intention sequence is presumably followed by actual behavior.This traditional model suggests that behaviors (including job performance) are largely influenced by job attitudes. (e.g., absenteeism)Recently, this traditional model has been questioned as being too simple and some more comprehensive alternatives have been developed.
32The Nature and Dimensions of Attitudes Components of AttitudesEmotional – feelings about an objectInformational – beliefs and information about the objectBehavioral – tendencies to behave in a particular manner towards an object (usually behavioral intentions)Only behavioral can be directly observed
33The Nature and Dimensions of Attitudes (Continued)Antecedents of Work-Related Attitudes: PA/NAPositive affect – overall sense of well-being, engaged, and experience positive attitudesNegative affect – nervous, tense, anxious, and distressed
34History of Job Satisfaction Based in history of Job SatisfactionFormal research began in mid-1930’s1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job satisfaction or organizational commitmentBy 1972 over 3000 articles published specifically exploring worker attitudesWhy interest developedMethodological breakthroughsSurvey methodsStatistical techniques
35How do Americans feel about going to work? Most Americans like their jobs overallPeople are relatively satisfied with the nature of the work itself:How interesting it isHaving lots of contact with peoplePeople less happy with rewardsPayBenefitsChances for promotion
36Determinants of Job Satisfaction Copyright 1999 by Brent Smith, Ph.D.
37Job Satisfaction Influences on Job Satisfaction Mental challenge in the work itselfPayPromotionsSupervisionWork GroupWorking Conditions
38Why all the fuss? Cultural interest Functional (practical) reasons Something most of us believe we are entitled to or at least desire from our workFunctional (practical) reasonsLink to important organizational outcomesPerformance…sometimesTurnoverAbsenteeismCounterproductive behaviors
39Job Satisfaction Outcomes of Job Satisfaction (Continued)Outcomes of Job SatisfactionSatisfaction and PerformanceSatisfaction and TurnoverSatisfaction and AbsenteeismOther Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction
40Job Satisfaction and Performance Is a happy worker a productive worker?Correlations positive and low to moderate.16 with overall satisfaction in individual studies.30 with overall satisfaction in meta-analytic studies.10 with specific facetsWhy is the association not larger?
41Organizational Commitment The Meaning of Organizational CommitmentAffectiveContinuanceNormative
42Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment has been related to many different job outcomesOrganizational CommitmentOverall job satisfaction.53Performance (depends on financial need).11Turnover-.28Conscientiousness.67Job involvement.50
43Organizational Commitment Guidelines to Enhance Organizational CommitmentPeople-firstCommunication MissionOrg. JusticeCreate a communitySupport employee developmentOrganizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
44Managing Employee Turnover through Attitudes SatisfactionCommitmentEmbeddedness
46Psychological Ownership MeasurementI feel I need to protect my ideas from being used by others in my organization.I am confident in my ability to contribute to my organization’s success.I would challenge anyone in my organization if I thought something was done wrong.I feel I belong in this organization.I feel this organization’s success is my success.
47DiscussionDo we care if employees are satisfied as long as they do their job well?Describe your current job: what steps could be taken to enhance job satisfaction?
49Review What is personality? What are some common personality traits? Why should knowledge of personality matter to today’s managers?Would you say it is better to train personality or to select for personality?Describe Big 5, CSET, MBTI, Job Satisfaction, Organizational CommitmentWhat are the components of an attitude?What is self monitoring and why is it important?