Presentation on theme: "Personality and Attitudes. Peter Drucker (1974)- Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices “An employer has no business with a man’s personality."— Presentation transcript:
Peter Drucker (1974)- Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices “An employer has no business with a man’s personality. It is immoral as well as an illegal intrusion of privacy. It is an abuse of power. Employment is a specific contract calling for a specific performance…an employee owes no “loyalty”, he owes no “love” and no “attitudes”—he owes performance and nothing else.”
Definition: The unique qualities of an individual and how those qualities affect understanding of themselves and others The Role of Heredity and the Brain External appearance – due to genetics Internal characteristics – nature vs. nurture – Twin Studies show that 40% are fixed…60% developable
How would you describe it? Is it inherited? Are you more like your mom or dad? Does it change over time? Does it change depending on who you are with?
Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques Evaluation Psychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-test between pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul- impulses and social restraints motivations tural impact Trait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit- influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under- as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability (b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situation patterns to situation Humanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory that about oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporary one’s experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in- people and their situation, of people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning, colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s cognition, and social behavior, control behavior in particular criticized as underestimating situations the importance of emotions and enduring traits
How much of your personality was developed, learned, strengthened over time? Socialization trains us how to act in relationship to others. Parents are our first teachers. How much of personality is based on genetics?
Challenging jobs Relevant Training Timely and consistent feedback Mentoring relationships Orientation programs Work group morale Socialization does have a long run impact, but not on everything.
Thousands of “Traits” Significant Overlap Futile to Study Personality Barrick and Mount Propose the “Big 5” Big 5 now Widely Accepted and Used Other Personality Traits or “Individual Differences” Still Researched
Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
Self-Esteem Your belief as to your competence and your image High self-esteem – positive attitudes, feelings, and satisfaction Locus of Control Generalized Self Efficacy Neuroticism (emotional stability) Core Self Evaluation Traits
Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends to increase self-esteem Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
Locus of Control InternalExternal I control what happens to me! People and circumstances control my fate!
Learned Helplessness Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior Important Issue Nursing Homes Prisons Colleges
Generalized Self-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Sources of self-efficacy Prior experiences and prior success Behavior models (observing success) Persuasion Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
Self-Monitoring Behavior based on cues from people & situations High self monitors flexible: adjust behavior according to the situation and the behavior of others can appear unpredictable & inconsistent Low self monitors act from internal states rather than from situational cues show consistency less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
Low-self monitors High-self monitors Get promoted Change employers Make a job-related geographic move Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central positions in social networks Self-promote Demonstrate higher levels of managerial self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
Swim with Sharks Without Being Eaten Alive Harvey B. Mackay (2005) “…to connect with celebrities you need to avoid the “fan syndrome” and instead talk to them about their interests.”
Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
Based on Carl Jung’s work People are fundamentally different People are fundamentally alike People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
Big 5, CSET, MBTI Matter in: Certain jobs (sales, QA, leadership) At certain times (e.g., status quo, crisis) More than performance? Honesty Theft Absenteeism Turnover Commitment/Satisfaction
Do you feel organizations should hire people based upon their personality characteristics? What are the issues with this? When people are hired into a job (e.g., engineering) do you think the personality is attracted to the job, or the job shapes the personality? Why? “I didn’t used to me this way until I started working here.”
Describe the meaning of attitudes and their emotional, informational, and behavioral components. Explain the antecedents of work- related attitudes, the functions they perform, and how they are changed.
“Attitudes” Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object Characteristics of Attitudes They tend to persist unless something is done to change them. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.
Informational/ Cognitive (i.e. beliefs) Affective (i.e. emotions) AttitudeBehavior genetics socialization observable learning Measurable in the brain with fMRI
Job Attitudes and Actual Behavior The belief, attitude, intention sequence is presumably followed by actual behavior. This traditional model suggests that behaviors (including job performance) are largely influenced by job attitudes. (e.g., absenteeism) Recently, this traditional model has been questioned as being too simple and some more comprehensive alternatives have been developed.
Components of Attitudes Emotional – feelings about an object Informational – beliefs and information about the object Behavioral – tendencies to behave in a particular manner towards an object (usually behavioral intentions) Only behavioral can be directly observed
Antecedents of Work-Related Attitudes: PA/NA Positive affect – overall sense of well-being, engaged, and experience positive attitudes Negative affect – nervous, tense, anxious, and distressed (Continued)
Based in history of Job Satisfaction Formal research began in mid-1930’s 1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job satisfaction or organizational commitment By 1972 over 3000 articles published specifically exploring worker attitudes Why interest developed Methodological breakthroughs Survey methods Statistical techniques
Most Americans like their jobs overall People are relatively satisfied with the nature of the work itself: How interesting it is Having lots of contact with people People less happy with rewards Pay Benefits Chances for promotion
Copyright 1999 by Brent Smith, Ph.D. Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Influences on Job Satisfaction Mental challenge in the work itself Pay Promotions Supervision Work Group Working Conditions
Cultural interest Something most of us believe we are entitled to or at least desire from our work Functional (practical) reasons Link to important organizational outcomes Performance…sometimes Turnover Absenteeism Counterproductive behaviors
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Satisfaction and Performance Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfaction and Absenteeism Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction (Continued)
Is a happy worker a productive worker? Correlations positive and low to moderate.16 with overall satisfaction in individual studies.30 with overall satisfaction in meta-analytic studies.10 with specific facets Why is the association not larger?
The Meaning of Organizational Commitment Affective Continuance Normative
Organizational Commitment Overall job satisfaction.53 Performance (depends on financial need).11 Turnover-.28 Conscientiousness.67 Job involvement.50 Organizational Commitment has been related to many different job outcomes
Guidelines to Enhance Organizational Commitment People-first Communication Mission Org. Justice Create a community Support employee development Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
Measurement I feel I need to protect my ideas from being used by others in my organization. I am confident in my ability to contribute to my organization’s success. I would challenge anyone in my organization if I thought something was done wrong. I feel I belong in this organization. I feel this organization’s success is my success.
Do we care if employees are satisfied as long as they do their job well? Describe your current job: what steps could be taken to enhance job satisfaction?
What is personality? What are some common personality traits? Why should knowledge of personality matter to today’s managers? Would you say it is better to train personality or to select for personality? Describe Big 5, CSET, MBTI, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment What are the components of an attitude? What is self monitoring and why is it important?