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Classical Conditioning How do you get a dog to salivate when he hears a bell? Pavlov's Dog.

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Conditioning How do you get a dog to salivate when he hears a bell? Pavlov's Dog."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Conditioning How do you get a dog to salivate when he hears a bell? Pavlov's Dog

2 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: Associating a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus natural stimulus – produces a predictable response neutral stimulus – does not produces any particular response

3 Classical Conditioning Application of Classical Conditioning; Psychologists use: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – (natural stimulus) that produces an unconditioned response (UCR) at the same time as a...

4 Classical Conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS) – (once-neutral stimulus) producing the same response, called a conditioned response (CR) after several repetitions

5 More realistic example Getting dental work done (unconditioned stimulus) Getting dental work done (unconditioned stimulus) hurts (unconditioned response) hurts (unconditioned response) Eventually the sound of the dentist’s drill (conditioned stimulus) Eventually the sound of the dentist’s drill (conditioned stimulus) causes anxiety, fear, or pain (conditioned response) causes anxiety, fear, or pain (conditioned response)

6 Generalization/Discrimination You may either generalize: respond the same to all drill sounds (similar stimuli), or You may either generalize: respond the same to all drill sounds (similar stimuli), or Discriminate: If you learn to respond only to dental drill sounds (distinct stimuli) Discriminate: If you learn to respond only to dental drill sounds (distinct stimuli)

7 Extinction If the conditioned stimulus If the conditioned stimulus is NOT followed by the same unconditioned stimulus is NOT followed by the same unconditioned stimulus It will result in extinction and the conditioned response will disappear It will result in extinction and the conditioned response will disappear

8 Operant Conditioning Learning from consequences of behavior Learning from consequences of behavior The behavior is either reinforced (increases) or punished (decreases) The behavior is either reinforced (increases) or punished (decreases)

9 Reinforcement Reinforcement – stimulus or event that increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated Reinforcement – stimulus or event that increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated Example: to get a dog to shake hands, you must give it a treat Example: to get a dog to shake hands, you must give it a treat (reinforcement) every time it raises its paw

10 Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer – stimulus that satisfies a biological need (food or water) Primary Reinforcer – stimulus that satisfies a biological need (food or water) Secondary Reinforcer – stimulus like money that gives a reward by being linked with a primary reinforcer (food) Secondary Reinforcer – stimulus like money that gives a reward by being linked with a primary reinforcer (food)

11 Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio – reinforcement after a fixed number of responses (paid after every 10 pizzas made) 2. Variable Ratio – reinforcement after varying number of responses (playing a slot machine)

12 Schedules of Reinforcement 3.Fixed Interval – reinforcement of first response after a fixed amount of time (picking up your paycheck after 2 weeks) 4.Variable Interval – reinforcement of first response after varying amounts of time (calling a friend but getting a busy signal) Variable reinforcers are more resistant to extinction than fixed reinforcers

13 Shaping A process of achieving a desired behavior by rewarding similar behaviors until the desired behavior is reached A process of achieving a desired behavior by rewarding similar behaviors until the desired behavior is reached Example: To get a dog to lie down and roll over, you must reward each act until the desired trick is learned Example: To get a dog to lie down and roll over, you must reward each act until the desired trick is learned

14 Negative Reinforcement A behavior increases by removing or preventing a painful stimulus A behavior increases by removing or preventing a painful stimulus Example: you take an aspirin to relieve a headache – the headache is a negative reinforcer to taking aspirin (aspirin taking increases) Example: you take an aspirin to relieve a headache – the headache is a negative reinforcer to taking aspirin (aspirin taking increases)

15 Punishment An unpleasant consequence decreases the frequency of the behavior that produced it An unpleasant consequence decreases the frequency of the behavior that produced it Example: Yelling “NO!!” every time a child gets close to the fire will stop the unsafe behavior Example: Yelling “NO!!” every time a child gets close to the fire will stop the unsafe behavior Can produce unwanted side effects: -Rage -Aggression -Fear

16 Social Learning Altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others Altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others

17 Social Learning Cognitive Learning – altering behavior by mental processes Cognitive Learning – altering behavior by mental processes –Latent Learning – learning or remembering details without intending to (seeing the same things on a regular driving route) –Learned helplessness –repeated attempts to control a situation fail, you feel helpless (cannot change a situation, cannot escape punishment – often leads to depression)

18 Social Learning Modeling – learning by imitating others Modeling – learning by imitating others

19 Social Learning Behavior Modification – systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings Behavior Modification – systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings Examples: Examples: –Use classical conditioning to overcome fears –Operant conditioning using token economies by reinforcing desired behaviors by giving “tokens” that can be exchanged for rewards later –Social learning through personal systems of rewards and punishments to create self- control

20 Group Activity In groups of 3, read the two behaviors you are given In groups of 3, read the two behaviors you are given Decide what general kind of conditioning they describe (Classical or Operant) and if operant, Decide what general kind of conditioning they describe (Classical or Operant) and if operant, Determine what specific kind of operant conditioning (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment) Determine what specific kind of operant conditioning (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment) Explain the example and your answers to the class Explain the example and your answers to the class Take notes on all examples given (they will be on the test) Take notes on all examples given (they will be on the test)

21 Group Activity Example Type of Conditioning Notes, comments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

22 Memory Memory – storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced Memory – storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced

23 Processes of Memory 1. Encoding – transforming information so the nervous system can process it F A C E Can encode by: Seeing the letters Hearing them spoken or Making a connection “face”

24 Processes of Memory 2. Storage – maintaining information over time (depends on how much effort was put into encoding the information) 3. Retrieval – information is brought to mind from storage (depends on how efficiently it was encoded and stored)

25 3 Stages of Memory 1.Sensory memory – brief memory storage immediately following a sensory input 7 1 V F X L 5 3 B 7 W 5 Lasts only a fraction of a second

26 3 Stages of Memory 2.Short-term memory – memory of about 7 items, lasts about 20 seconds Lasts longer if repeated Chunking – grouping items to make them easier to remember Primacy-Recency Effect

27 3 Stages of Memory 3.Long-term memory – storage of information over extended periods of time Semantic memory – knowledge of language – rules, words, meanings Episodic memory – memories of your life Declarative memory – information retrieved as needed Procedural memory – learned skills, does not need conscious recollection I before e except after c a 2+ b 2 =c 2

28 Retrieving Information Recognition – the retrieval of an idea, object, or situation you have experienced before Recognition – the retrieval of an idea, object, or situation you have experienced before –Recognizing songs or instruments –Recognizing answers on a multiple choice test

29 Retrieving Information Recall – active reconstruction of previously learned material. Influenced by: Recall – active reconstruction of previously learned material. Influenced by: –Reconstructive process – altering or distorting our memories (“selective memory”) –Confabulation – filling in memory gaps with information/experiences that were not there –Schemas – conceptual frameworks we use to make sense of the world –Eidetic memory – a photographic memory

30 Relearning/Forgetting Relearning – Can relearn previously learned information with less work (reciting a nursery rhyme or poem from your childhood) Relearning – Can relearn previously learned information with less work (reciting a nursery rhyme or poem from your childhood) Forgetting Forgetting –Decay – fading away of memory over time  Older memories remain (can be recovered through hypnosis, meditation, brain stimulation) –Interference – blockage of memory by prior or later memories –Amnesia – loss of memory from a blow to the head or infant amnesia (lack of early memories)

31 Improving Memory Elaborate Rehearsal – linking of new information to material that is already known Elaborate Rehearsal – linking of new information to material that is already known –Associate new information with past events, relationships, feelings –Learn new information in small bits instead of all at once (don’t cram)

32 Improving Memory Mnemonic Devices – Using associations to memorize and retrieve information Mnemonic Devices – Using associations to memorize and retrieve information –Acrostics (Queen of Hearts eats raspberry cream tarts) –Use mental pictures to learn – making up words, stories, etc. to remember

33 Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time. Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time.

34 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.

35 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. !

36 Using only your notes, on a clean sheet of paper, list the following: The 3 Processes of Memory The 3 Processes of Memory The 3 Stages of Memory The 3 Stages of Memory The 4 kinds of long term memory The 4 kinds of long term memory The 4 things that influence our recall The 4 things that influence our recall The definition of mnemonic devices The definition of mnemonic devices

37 Psychological Testing Test Reliability – ability of a test to give the same results under similar circumstances Test Reliability – ability of a test to give the same results under similar circumstances –Do you score about the same when retaken? –Do different people give you the same score? –Do you do about the same on each section of the test?

38 Psychological Testing Test Validity – ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure Test Validity – ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure –Does the test accurately predict performance?

39 Psychological Testing Standardization – test must be given the same way each time Standardization – test must be given the same way each time The test must establish an average score (norm) of a large, well defined, group of people The test must establish an average score (norm) of a large, well defined, group of people Norm – standard of comparison for test results

40 Psychological Testing Questions to ask when getting a score Questions to ask when getting a score –Would you score the same if you took the test again? –Does the score reflect your knowledge of the subject? –Does your score compare fairly with other students who took the test?

41 Intelligence Testing Intelligence Intelligence –The ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior and to adapt to new situations –Or –The ability to do well on intelligence tests and in school

42 Theories of Intelligence In groups of 4-5 read about the theory of intelligence on your card in Section 2 of Chapter 13 (p. 349-352) In groups of 4-5 read about the theory of intelligence on your card in Section 2 of Chapter 13 (p. 349-352) Summarize the main features of the theory Summarize the main features of the theory Present them to the class who will complete a chart in their notes on the theories Present them to the class who will complete a chart in their notes on the theories

43 Theories of Intelligence Theory Main Features Issus, Criticisms Spearman Thurstone Gardner Sternberg Emotional Intelligence

44 Intelligence Tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1973) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1973) –Children tested one at a time –Define words, draw pictures, explain events in daily life –Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100

45 Intelligence Tests Wechsler Tests (1981) Wechsler Tests (1981) –Tests for adults and children –One overall score, plus –Percentile scores in several areas (vocabulary, math, picture arrangement) –More detailed picture of individual’s strengths and weaknesses Percentile – percent of people taking the test who scored lower than your score

46 Intelligence Tests You should complete these questions in 60 seconds or less! –1.Two ducks and two dogs have a total of fourteen legs. True False –2.A pie can be cut into more than seven pieces by making four diameter cuts. True False –3.Two of the following numbers add up to thirteen. 1, 6, 3, 5, 11 True False

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48 Personality Testing Personality Tests – assess personality characteristics and identify problems Personality Tests – assess personality characteristics and identify problems –Objective tests –  limited or forced-choice format  Used to study personality characteristics –Projective tests –  unstructured  Test-taker can respond freely with their own interpretation of various stimuli

49 Personality Testing Objective Test Examples: Objective Test Examples: –MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)  567 true-false questions  Used to assess major patterns of personality and extreme emotional disorders  Usually given with other tests or interviews

50 MMPI 1. I like mechanics magazines 2. I have a good appetite 3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian 5. I am easily awakened by noise 6. I like to read newspaper articles on crime 7. My hands and feet are usually warm enough

51 Personality Testing Objective Test Examples: Objective Test Examples: –CPI (California Psychological Inventory)  true-false questions  Measures traits such as responsibility, self- control, and tolerance  Used to predict adjustment to stress, leadership, and job success  Usually follow-up test with counseling or discussion with a psychologist

52 Personality Testing Objective Test Examples: Objective Test Examples: –Myers-Briggs Test  Characterizes personality on four different scales  Shows test takers how they relate to others and how others relate to them

53 Personality Testing Projective Test Examples: Projective Test Examples: –Rorschach Inkblot Test  Inkblot designs are shown to the test-taker who says what he/she sees  Reveals aspects of the person’s personality  Results often depend on the psychologist’s expectations

54 Rorschach Test

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56 Personality Testing Projective Test Examples: Projective Test Examples: –TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)  Pictures of vague but suggestive situations  Subjects are asked to tell a story about the picture  Used to assess personality problems of the test-taker

57 TAT


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