2 OB33 understand the following in relation to human reproduction: OB31 use wall charts or other illustrative diagrams to identify and locate the main parts of the male and female reproductive systemsOB32 recall that the menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days and that menstruation occurs at the start of the cycleOB33 understand the following in relation tohuman reproduction:• fertile period in the menstrual cycle• sexual intercourse• fertilisation is the fusion between male and female gametes (sperm and egg) resulting in a zygote; a zygote undergoes cell division and develops within the womb into a foetus• pregnancy and birth• growth and pubertyOB34 understand that there are many forms of contraception, and that some of these prevent fertilisation
3 The male reproductive system The male reproduction system produces and delivers the male gamete (sperm)link to interactive diagram at Kid’sHealthSeminal VesicleSperm DuctSide view
4 The female reproductive system link to interactive diagram at Kid’sHealthThe female reproduction system produces the female gamete (egg) and protects the developing embryo / foetus
5 Growth & Puberty Growth is a characteristic of all living things During puberty the reproductive systems matureAfter puberty a human is called an adultlink to animation at bbc.co.uk
6 The menstrual cycle 28 day cycle in the female link to animation28 day cycle in the femaleControlled by chemicals called hormonesAn egg is produced, and the womb develops a thick lining of blood vessels to be prepared for pregnancyIf the egg is not fertilised, the lining leaves the womb – menstruation – and the cycle begins again
7 Stages in the menstrual cycle 28 day cycleApprox. days1 - 5Menstruation – loss of uterus lining and unfertilised egg5 - 13Repair of uterus lining14Release of egg from ovaryBuild up of lining of uterus
8 Fertile period in the menstrual cycle The egg is, usually, released aroundDay 14 of a 28 day cycleFertilisation is possible for several days around this time
9 link to ‘how stuff works’ animation Sexual intercourseThe natural process of transferring the sperm from the body of a male to the body of a femaleMillions of sperm are transferred in a fluid called semen…they immediately begin swimming towards the single egg celllink to ‘how stuff works’ animation
10 FertilisationOccurs when a male gamete (sperm) fuses with the female gamete (egg) to form a zygoteAlso referred to as conceptionSperm + egg = zygote
11 FertilisationFertilisation usually happens in the oviduct / fallopian tubeA fertilised egg – zygote - may then move down into the wall of the uterus / womb
12 Pregnancya zygote undergoes cell division and develops within the womb into a foetusover 40 weeks the foetus develops all its human featuresIt develops inside a protective sac of fluidIt receives food via a blood supply in the placentalink to animation
13 BirthLink to birth animationAfter about 40 weeks, when the baby is fully developed, the following happens:The sac of protective fluid breaks openThe muscles of the uterus / womb contract very strongly to push the baby outAfter the baby is born, the placenta is also pushed out of the wombThe umbilical cord between baby and placenta is cutLinks to an animation – may be slow to load…
14 Contraception Main methods of preventing conception: Chemical - prevention of gamete formation e.g. the PillPhysical barrier – preventing the gametes from meeting e.g. condomTiming – avoiding sexual intercourse during the fertile period of the menstrual cycle
15 Find the answers:Why are human babies born so “helpless” compared to some animal babies?Why are human babies’ heads so big in comparison to their bodies?What are conjoined twins and how do they occur?What is foetal alcohol syndrome ?
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