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Psychological Disorders Chapter 14: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders Chapter 14: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Disorders Chapter 14: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Understanding Abnormal Behavior Anxiety Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved UNDERSTANDING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Defining Abnormal Behavior Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders Classifying Abnormal Behavior

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Defining Abnormal Behavior  Deviant - atypical behavior, deviates from acceptable norms  Maladaptive - interferes with person’s ability to function effectively  Personal distress - person does not feel right Abnormal behavior = behavior that is deviant, maladaptive or personally distressful

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders  Causes of psychological disorders include biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors and the possibility of a combination of factors

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Biological Approach  The biological approach attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes  Biological factors that contribute to psychological disorders: – abnormalities in brain structure – imbalances in neurotransmitters or hormones – disordered genes

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Biological Approach  Medical model: – abnormalities are mental illnesses – individuals afflicted are patients – patients are treated by doctors, often with drugs Medical model = describes psychological disorders as medical diseases with a biological origin

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Psychological Approach  The psychodynamic, behavioral, social cognitive, and humanistic perspectives serve as foundations for understanding psychological factors in psychological disorders

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Psychological Approach  Psychodynamic perspective - psychological disorders arise from unconscious conflicts that produce anxiety  Behavioral perspective - rewards and punishments in the environment shape abnormal behavior  Social cognitive perspective - environment, observational learning, expectancies, self-efficacy, self- control, and beliefs are key factors in abnormal behavior

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Sociocultural Approach  Sociocultural approach - emphasis on larger social contexts in which a person lives (individual’s marriage or family, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, culture)  Frequency and intensity of psychological disorders varies across cultures and depends on social, economic, technological, and religious aspects

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved An Interactionist Approach: Biopsychosocial  Biopsychosocial approach - abnormal behavior can be influenced by: – biological factors (such as brain processes and heredity) – psychological factors (such as distorted thoughts or low self-esteem) – sociocultural factors (such as ineffective family functioning or poverty)

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Classifying Abnormal Behavior - DSM-IV-TR  American Psychiatric Association first published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1952 – DSM-IV-TR (4th edition, text revision) was published in 2000 – DSM-IV-TR has multiaxial system which classifies individuals on the basis of five dimensions, or axes – DSM reflects the medical model

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Issue of Labeling  DSM classification is controversial: – it labels as disorders what are thought of as everyday problems – it has bias toward finding something wrong – it puts labels on people  Despite disadvantages, DSM-IV-TR is comprehensive and allows clinicians to make predictions

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 1 – What is abnormal behavior? – What factors might be involved in the etiology of psychological disorders? – How does the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classify psychological disorders and what are its advantages and disadvantages?

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved ANXIETY DISORDERS Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Phobia Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Anxiety disorders - psychological disorders that include: – motor tension (jumpiness, trembling, inability to relax) – hyperactivity (dizziness, racing heart, perspiration) – apprehensive expectations and thoughts

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Generalized anxiety disorder - consists of persistent anxiety over at least one month; the individual with this disorder cannot specify reasons for the anxiety

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Generalized Anxiety Disorder  About 4 million Americans from 18 to 54 years of age have generalized anxiety disorder  Biological factors include genetic predisposition and deficiency of the neurotransmitter GABA  Psychological and sociocultural factors include overly strict and critical parents and negative thoughts when stressed

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Panic Disorder  About 2.4 million Americans have panic disorder Panic disorder = anxiety disorder marked by recurrent sudden onset of intense apprehension or terror

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Panic Disorder  Panic attacks strike without warning and produce: – severe palpitations – shortness of breath – chest pains – trembling – sweating – dizziness – feeling of helplessness

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Agoraphobia Agoraphobia = cluster of fears centered around public places and being unable to escape or to find help should one become incapacitated

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Agoraphobia  People with agoraphobia have fears of: – crowded public places – traveling away from home – feeling confined – being separated from a place or a person

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Panic Disorder  Biological factors in panic disorder include: – overreaction to lactic acid – genetic predisposition – overactive autonomic nervous system – problems with neurotransmitters norepinephrine and GABA

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Panic Disorder  Psychological factors in panic disorder include: – stressful life event – separation from loved one – change in job

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Coping with Panic 1. Retreat 2. Divert your attention 3. Engage in deep breathing relaxation and positive self-talk

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Phobic Disorders  About 6.3 million Americans have a phobic disorder Phobic disorder = anxiety disorder in which individual has irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Phobic Disorders  Common phobias involve: – social situations – dogs – height – dirt – flying – snakes  Social phobia - intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 14.3 Phobias

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 14.4 Social Phobias in the United States

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Phobic Disorders  Biological factors: – genetic – neural circuit (thalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex) – neurotransmitter serotonin  Psychological factors: – defense mechanisms – learned fears

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  About 3.3 million Americans have obsessive- compulsive disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) = anxiety disorder; individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away (obsession) and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation (compulsion)

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Common compulsions include: – checking – cleansing – counting

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Biological factors – genetic – brain pattern – depletion of neurotransmitter serotonin

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Psychological factors – life stress – occupation change – marriage change

35 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Coping with an Anxiety Disorder 1. Understand that effective treatments are available 2. Ask the therapist what training and experience he or she has in treating anxiety disorders 3. Expect therapist to conduct a thorough diagnostic evaluation 4. Recognize that the length of treatment required can vary 5. Recognize that if one treatment doesn’t work, another one will

36 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder

37 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dissociative Disorders  Under extreme stress, individual’s conscious awareness becomes dissociated (separated) from previous memories Dissociative disorders = psychological disorders that involve sudden loss of memory or change in identity

38 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue  Three types of dissociative disorders: – Dissociative amnesia - extreme memory loss caused by extensive psychological stress – Dissociative fugue - individual not only develops amnesia but also travels away from home and establishes new identity – Dissociative identity disorder (DID) - individuals have two or more distinct personalities

39 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved MOOD DISORDERS Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorder Causes of Mood Disorders Suicide

40 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Mood Disorders  Two types of mood disorders : – depressive disorders – bipolar disorder Mood disorders = psychological disorders in which there is a disturbance in mood (prolonged emotion that colors the individual’s entire emotional state)

41 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Depressive Disorders  Major depressive disorder (MDD) - individual experiences a major depressive episode with symptoms lasting at least two weeks  Dysthymic disorder - more chronic and has fewer symptoms then major depressive disorder

42 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Depressive Disorders  Major depressive episode - individual experiences at least 5 symptoms for at least 2 weeks: – depressed mood most of the day – reduced interest or pleasure in most activities – significant weight change or significant appetite change – trouble sleeping or sleeping too much – psychomotor agitation or retardation – fatigue or loss of energy – feeling worthless or guilty – problems in thinking, concentration, or making decisions – recurrent thoughts of death and suicide

43 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Coping with Depression For the Depressed Individual: 1. Recognize that feeling exhausted, worthless, helpless, and hopeless are part of the depression 2. See a therapist

44 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Coping with Depression For Family and Friends: 1. Help individual get competent diagnosis and treatment 2. Offer emotional support 3. Invite the depressed person to activities 4. Encourage the depressed individual to participate in activities that he or she once enjoyed 5. Don’t expect him or her to “snap out of it”

45 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Bipolar Disorder – Most bipolar individuals experience multiple cycles of depression interspersed with manic episodes Bipolar disorder = mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania

46 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Bipolar Disorder  Manic episode occurs when a person: – feels euphoric – has tremendous energy – is impulsive

47 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Biological Causes of Mood Disorders  Biological causes of mood disorders include: – heredity – neurobiological abnormalities – altered brain wave activity during sleep – decrease in brain metabolic activity – neuron death – imbalance of monoamine neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine) – hormones

48 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychological Factors in Mood Disorders  Psychodynamic theories emphasize childhood experiences that prevented the person from developing a strong, positive sense of self  Freud suggested depression is a turning inward of aggressive instincts

49 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Behavioral Explanations of Mood Disorders  Behavioral explanations include reduction of positive reinforcers Learning Helplessness = occurs when individuals are exposed to aversive stimulation, such as prolonged stress, over which they have no control

50 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Explanations of Mood Disorders  Cognitive explanations include: – Depressed individuals interpret life in a negative way – Individuals with a pessimistic cognitive style are more likely to be depressed  Depressive realism - depressed individuals accurately view the world

51 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sociocultural Factors in Mood Disorders  Sociocultural factors – Incidence and intensity of depression varies across cultures  Socioeconomic and ethnic factors – Individuals living in poverty are more likely to be depressed  Bipolar disorder occurs equally in men and women, but women are twice as likely to develop depression

52 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Suicide  Depression can cause individuals to want to commit suicide – Suicide is third leading cause of death in U.S. adolescents  Females are more likely to attempt suicide, but males are more likely to actually commit suicide

53 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Suicide  Biological factors in suicide include: – genetic – low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin – poor physical health

54 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Suicide  Psychological factors in suicide include: – psychological disorders – traumas (such as sexual abuse) – highly stressful circumstances

55 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Suicide  Sociocultural factors in suicide include: – loss of loved one – family instability – chronic economic hardship

56 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Communicating with Someone Threatening Suicide 1. Ask direct questions in a calm manner 2. Be a good listener and be supportive 3. Take the suicide threat seriously 4. Encourage the person to get professional help and assist him or her in getting help

57 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SCHIZOPHRENIA Types of schizophrenia Causes of schizophrenia

58 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Schizophrenia  About 2.2 million adults in the U.S. have schizophrenia  One half of patients in mental hospitals are individuals with schizophrenia Schizophrenia = a severe psychological disorder characterized by a highly disordered thought processes

59 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Schizophrenia  Symptoms of schizophrenia include: – delusions – hallucinations – word salad – bizarre behavior – withdrawal

60 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Types of Schizophrenia  Disorganized schizophrenia - delusions and hallucinations that have no meaning  Catatonic schizophrenia - bizarre motor behavior, sometimes an immobile stupor  Paranoid schizophrenia - delusions of reference, grandeur, and persecution  Undifferentiated schizophrenia - disorganized behavior, hallucinations, delusions, and incoherence

61 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Causes of Schizophrenia  Biological factors in schizophrenia include: – heredity – brain abnormalities – high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine – enlarged ventricles in brain – small frontal cortex in brain

62 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Causes of Schizophrenia  Psychological factors in schizophrenia include: – stress  Diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia - combination of biogenetic disposition and stress  Sociocultural factors in schizophrenia include: – poverty

63 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved PERSONALITY DISORDERS Odd or Eccentric Cluster Dramatic or Emotionally Problematic Cluster Anxious or Fearful Cluster

64 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Personality Disorders Personality disorders = chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into the individual’s personality

65 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Odd or Eccentric Cluster  The odd or eccentric cluster of personality disorders include: – Paranoid - suspicious of others – Schizoid - inadequate social relationships – Schizotypal - odd thinking patterns

66 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dramatic or Emotionally Problematic Cluster  The dramatic or emotionally problematic cluster include: – Histrionic - tend to overreact – Narcissistic - unrealistic sense of self-importance – Borderline - emotionally unstable – Antisocial - guiltless, law-breaking, self-indulgent, irresponsible, and intrusive

67 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Anxious or Fearful Cluster  The anxious or fearful cluster includes: – Avoidant - inhibited, but desire relationships – Dependent - lack self-confidence – Obsessive-compulsive - obsessed with rules


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