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Personality. Introduction Personality an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, & acting. Distinctive & consistentPersonality.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality. Introduction Personality an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, & acting. Distinctive & consistentPersonality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality

2 Introduction Personality an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, & acting. Distinctive & consistentPersonality

3 Exploring the Unconscious Parts of the mind –Conscious –Preconscious –UnconsciousUnconscious Free association Psychoanalysis Repression Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalytic Perspective

4 Exploring the Unconscious Exploring the Unconscious Personality Structure Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 -2:45 Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 Personality structure –IdId Pleasure principle –EgoEgo Reality principle –SuperegoSuperego Conscience Personality\video\191_Superego.mp4 Personality\video\191_Superego.mp4

5 Exploring the Unconscious Exploring the Unconscious Defense Mechanisms Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 2:45-6:30 Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 Defense mechanisms –RepressionRepression –RegressionRegression –Reaction formationReaction formation –ProjectionProjection –RationalizationRationalization –DisplacementDisplacement –SublimationSublimation –DenialDenial

6 Exploring the Unconscious Exploring the Unconscious Personality Development Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 6:25- Personality\video\192_Psychodynamic_Theories_of_Personality.mp4 Psychosexual stages –Oral –Anal –Phallic –Latency –Genital

7 Exploring the Unconscious Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages

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13 Exploring the Unconscious Exploring the Unconscious Personality Development Erogenous zones Oedipus complex Electra complex –Female version Identification Fixation

14 The Neo-Freudian Theorists Agreed childhood is important basics of personality structure (id, ego, superego) Importance of unconscious Personality shaped during childhood Dynamics of Anxiety & defense Mechanisms Disagreed Sexual & Aggression tensions dominate All the emphasis on the UNCONSCIOUS

15 The Neo-Freudian Theorists inferiority complex –Adler’s inferiority complex Social, not sexual, tensions critical for Personality formation Much of behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority … leading us to strive for superiority & power –Horney’s sense of helplessness Childhood anxiety caused by a dependent child’s sense of helplessness, triggers a desire for love & security Opposed Freud’s ideas about women’s weak superegos & Penis envy

16 The Neo-Freudian Theorists Carl JungCarl Jung – Freud’s disciple-turned dissenter –Less emphasis on social factors –Emphasis on Freud’s view of UNCONSIOUS MIND Powerful influence but also contained the…. –collective unconscious - concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.collective unconscious Psychodynamic theory- –Freud related- Contends- much of our mental state is unconscious, we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, & values, that childhood shapes our personalities, & ways of becoming attached to others

17 Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective Test –Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Thematic Apperception Test –Rorschach Inkblot TestRorschach Inkblot Test

18 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Contradictory Evidence –? Influence of Childhood/Parents –? Timing of Gender ID –? Significance of childhood sexuality –? Relevance of Dream Content Is repression a myth? The modern unconscious mind –View: info processing -occurs w/out awareness Support by research into unconscious implicit learning –Terror management theoryTerror management theory Freud’s ideas as scientific theory

19 The Humanistic Perspective 1960s Maslow & Rogers Perspective that emphasizes human potential Assumes people are basically GOOD Focus on ways of the health people striving for self-determination & self realization Study people thru their own self reported experience and feelings

20 The Humanistic Perspective Self-Actualizing Person The Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person Abraham Maslow –Self-actualization Personality\Self Actualization.flvSelf-actualization Personality\Self Actualization.flv –Self-transcendence –Peak experiences

21 Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective Humanistic Psychology - Free Intro to Psychology Video Humanistic Psychology - Free Intro to Psychology Video Humanistic Psychology - Free Intro to Psychology Video Carl Rogers– Goal: be true to yourself –Growth promoting climate Genuineness – open with your own feelings Acceptance – offering us “unconditional positive regard” Empathy – sharing & mirroring our feelings & reflecting our meanings –Unconditional positive regardUnconditional positive regard –Self-conceptSelf-concept –Application - Personality\Carl Rogers' evaluation.flvPersonality\Carl Rogers' evaluation.flv

22 Assessing the Self Self-report tests –Questionnaires that evaluate self concept Humanists believe that any standardized assessment of personality is depersonalizing. They prefer interviews & intimate conversations provide better understand of a person’s unique experiences –Ideal versus actual self

23 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Big Impact on Popular Culture Renewed interest in self-concept as the key to happiness Criticisms –Vague & subjective –Individualistic & Western biased May lead to self indulgence, selfishness, erosion of self-restraint –Naïve- fails to consider man’s capacity for evil. Thus may lead to Naïve Optimism or Dark Despair (lack of realistic approach & caution or hopelessness)

24 The Trait Perspective Intro to Personality - Free Intro to Psychology Video Outmoded Approaches to Personality Assessment - Free Intro to Psychology Video Intro to Personality - Free Intro to Psychology Video Outmoded Approaches to Personality Assessment - Free Intro to Psychology Video

25 Traits Traits -2:40 Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Trait - a characteristic pattern (identifiable) of behavior or a disposition to feel & act, as assessed by self-report inventories & peer reports.Trait –Describing NOT explaining Describe & classify noteworthy traits –Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Attempts to sort people according to Jung’s personality types. Based on a 126 questionnaire –Counts the test takers preferences, labels them as indicating a “feeling” or “thinking” type & the results are fed back in complimentary terms –Trait Assessment Testing - Free Intro to Psychology Video Trait Assessment Testing - Free Intro to Psychology VideoTrait Assessment Testing - Free Intro to Psychology Video

26 Exploring Traits Exploring Traits Factor Analysis Most people are NOT 1 Type of Personality Trait –They are more Individual … a complex of trait dimensions Factor analysis proposes some traits are BASIC –Eysenck & Eysenck – used statistically correlated clusters of behaviors as these BASIC PERSONALITY TRAITS Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Extroversion versus introversion Emotional stability versus instability Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

27 Exploring Traits Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

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34 Exploring Traits Exploring Traits Biology and Personality Brain scans –Brain arousal Extraversion vs. Intraversion Genetics –Genes influence temperament –Autonomic nervous system reactivity Influences shyness, inhibition REACTIVE autonomic nervous system responds to via stress response, with greater anxiety & inhibition

35 Assessing Traits Personality inventory Several techniques exist Profile a wide range of feelings & behaviors Longer questionnaires –Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Assesses normal Personality Tendencies vs. Traits Empirically derived test with Norm vs AbnormEmpirically derived test Objective test but no guarantee of validity Lie scale - incorporated to assess faking answers

36 The Big Five Factors The Big Five Factors 3:27 Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Personality\video\197_Trait_Theories.mp4 Slightly expanded set of factors of Eysenck’s Dimensions The Big Five –Conscientiousness –Agreeableness –Neuroticism Emotional stability vs instability –Openness –Extraversion

37 The Big Five Factors

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44 Questions on The Big Five –How stable are the traits? Very with some variability over the lifespan –How heritable are the traits? Varies but a bit better than 50% –Do the traits predict other personal attributes? YES

45 Evaluating the Trait Perspective Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Person-situation controversy –Are traits consistent? –Can traits predict behavior?

46 The Social-Cognitive Perspective

47 Social-cognitive perspective –Applies principles of learning, cognition, & social behavior to the understanding of personality –Focuses on how we & our environment interact –How we interpret & respond. How our schemas, memories & expectations influence behavior –Social-behavioral approach We learn many of our behaviors either thru conditioning or by observing others & modeling our behaviors after theirs

48 Reciprocal Influences Reciprocal determinism the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, & environment. Interlocking & mutual. BanduraReciprocal determinism

49 Reciprocal Influences Ways individuals & the environment interact. Both products & architects of our environment –Different people choose different environments. You choose your environment, &it then shapes you –Our personalities shape how we interpret & react to events. Anxious people are attuned to potentially threatening events. Thus, they perceive the world as threatening & react accordingly –Our personalities help create situations to which we react. How we view & treat people influences how they view & treat us.

50 The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of Personality

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54 Socio-Cognitive Theory Personal Control Personal control - the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.Personal control –Two ways to study personal control Correlate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors & achievements Experiment by raising & lowering people’s sense of control & noting the effects

55 Personal Control Personal Control Internal Versus External Locus of Control Internal vs. External locus of control –External locus of control - the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. Personality\External Locus of Control.flvExternal locus of control Personality\External Locus of Control.flv –Internal locus of control - the perception that you control your own fate.Internal locus of control –Personality\Locus of Control Video.flvPersonality\Locus of Control Video.flv

56 Personal Control Depleting & Strengthening Self-Control Personality\The Watchkins_ Self-Control.flv Personality\The Watchkins_ Self-Control.flv Personality\The Watchkins_ Self-Control.flv Self-control- the ability to control impulses & delay gratification. –PREDICTS: good adjustment, better grades & social success –REQUIRES: effort, attention & energy

57 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control People who feel helpless & oppressed often perceive control as external & may develop Learned helplessness or passive resignation … they give up easily.

58 Personal Control Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness

59 Personal Control Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Tyranny of Choice-Tyranny of Choice- Too many choices actually makes up unhappy –Too much choice brings information overload & a greater likelihood that we will feel regret over some the un- chosen options –Excess of freedoms contributing to a decreasing life satisfaction, increased depression & sometimes paralysis

60 Personal Control Attribution Theory Personal Control Attribution Theory Attribution Theory and the Principle of Locus of Control - Free Educational Psychology Video Optimism Vs. Pessimism Attribution Theory and the Principle of Locus of Control - Free Educational Psychology Video Optimism & Health - More healthy Excessive Optimism Natural Positive Thinking Bias can blind us to real risks Realistic Anxiety over possible future failures moves us to work harder to avoid the negative fate Illusory Optimism – most people underestimate THEIR Risky behaviors Blindness to One’s Own Incompetence most overconfident when we are the most incompetent Positive psychology

61 Assessing Behavior in Situations Best means of predicting future behavior NOT a personality test or an interviewer’s intuition. But a person’s past behavior patterns in similar situations US Army spy training- use of simulations = successful in predicting future success in actual spy situations Business use of simulations –Simulated managerial work –Observing actual behaviors on the job –Internships, student teaching

62 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Based on research on learning & cognition - more than any other personality based perspectives Focuses too much on the situation –Fails to consider the person’s inner traits & emotions –Doesn’t consider biology

63 Comparing Research Methods

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70 Exploring the Self

71 Introduction Self –in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, & actions Studies into SELF include – Possible Self- self people dream of becoming. Viewed as motivating us by laying out specific goals & centering energies toward them –Spotlight effect – reflects our tendency to over- estimate others’ noticing & evaluating our appearance, performance & blundersSpotlight effect

72 The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-esteem one’s feelings of high or low self-worthSelf-esteem –Less shy, anxious, & lonely –More persistent at tough tasks –Fewer sleepless nights –Less conforming –Just plain happier Best way to foster self- esteem: help children meet challenges, not reward them despite their failures

73 Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias -readiness to perceive oneself favorablySelf-serving bias –People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, successes than failures –Most people see themselves as better than average Defensive self-esteem: fragile/focused on sustaining itself, which makes failure & criticism feel threatening Secure self-esteem: less fragile b/c it depends less on external evaluation. Feeling accepted enables us to lose ourselves in relationships & purposes larger than SELF… THUS – SELF ACTUALIZE

74 Culture & the Self Individualism giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals & defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. ID comes from relationships temporary, casual. Confrontation is OK….Individualism COST- loneliness, divorce, homicide, stress related diseases Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family/work group) & defining one’s identity accordingly. ID come from belonging, group goals & solidarity mattersCollectivism

75 Individualism versus Collectivism

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83 The End

84 Teacher Information Types of Files – This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.

85 Teacher Information Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

86 Teacher Information Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. Please feel free to contact me at kkorek@germantown.k12.wi.us with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.kkorek@germantown.k12.wi.us Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022 262-253-3400 kkorek@germantown.k12.wi.us

87 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) xxx –xxx

88 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

89 Definition Slide = add definition here

90 Definition Slides

91 Personality = an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

92 Free Association = in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

93 Psychoanalysis = Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

94 Unconscious = according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

95 Id = a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

96 Ego = the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

97 Superego = the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

98 Psychosexual Stages = the childhood stages of development, (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

99 Oedipus Complex = according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

100 Identification = the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent’s values into their developing superegos.

101 Fixation = according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual state, in which conflicts were unresolved.

102 Defense Mechanisms = in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

103 Repression = in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. UNDERLIES ALL OTHER DEFENSE MECHANISMS Believed to be incomplete, that repressed urges can seep out in dreams symbols & slips of the tongue

104 Regression = psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

105 Reaction Formation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulse into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

106 Projection = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

107 Rationalization = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

108 Displacement = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

109 Sublimation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

110 Denial = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.

111 Collective Unconscious = Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.

112 Projective Test = a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.

113 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) = a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

114 Rorschach Inkblot Test = the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

115 Terror-management Theory = a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death. THUS People act not only to enhance their self- esteem but also to adhere more strongly to worldviews that answer questions about life’s meaning and move to maintain and hold on to close relationships

116 Self-actualization = according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

117 Unconditional Positive Regard = according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. An attitude of grace, an attitude that values us even knowing our failings. Allow people to drop their pretenses, confess our worst feelings and discover that we are still accepted

118 Self-concept = all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”

119 Trait = a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

120 Personality Inventory = a questionnaire (often true-false or agree- disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

121 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) = the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

122 Empirically Derived Test = a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

123 Social-cognitive Perspective = views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

124 Reciprocal Determinism = the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

125 Personal Control = the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.

126 External Locus of Control = the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

127 Internal Locus of Control = the perception that you control your own fate.

128 Positive Psychology = the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. Shares the goals of Humanists, but its methodology is scientific. Positive psychology studies positive emotions, positive character, & positive groups, communities, & cultures

129 Self = in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

130 Spotlight Effect = overestimating other’s noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).

131 Self-esteem = one’s feelings of high or low self-worth.

132 Self-serving Bias = a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

133 Individualism = giving priority to one’s own goals to over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than than group identifications

134 Collectivism = giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.


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