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Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood Chapter 8 Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. American Public University System.

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Presentation on theme: "Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood Chapter 8 Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. American Public University System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood Chapter 8 Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. American Public University System

2 2 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood  Two key emotions :  Depression  Low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming  Mania  State of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy

3 3 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood  People with depressive disorders suffer only from depression  This pattern is called unipolar depression  Person has no history of mania  Mood returns to normal when depression lifts  Others experience periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression  This pattern is called bipolar disorder  One might logically expect a third pattern – unipolar mania, in which people suffer from mania only – but this pattern is uncommon

4 4 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Disorders of Mood  Mood problems have always captured people’s interest  Millions of people have mood problems  Economic costs of mood problems amount to many billions of dollars each year  The human suffering is beyond calculation

5 5 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update Unipolar Depression  The term “depression” is often used to describe general sadness or unhappiness  This loose use of the term confuses a normal mood swing with a clinical syndrome  Depressive disorders can bring severe and long-lasting psychological pain that may intensify as time goes by

6 How Common Is Unipolar Depression?  Around 8% of adults in the U.S. suffer from severe unipolar depression in any given year  As many as 5% suffer from mild forms  Around 19% of all adults experience unipolar depression at some time in their lives  The prevalence is similar in Canada, England, France, and many other countries  The rate of depression is higher among poor people than wealthier people 6 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

7 How Common Is Unipolar Depression?  People of any age may suffer from unipolar depression  Women are at least twice as likely as men to experience severe unipolar depression  Lifetime prevalence: 26% of women vs. 12% of men  Among children, the prevalence is similar among boys and girls  Approximately 85% of people with unipolar depression recover, some without treatment  Around 40% will experience another episode later in their lives 7 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

8 What Are the Symptoms of Unipolar Depression?  Symptoms may vary from person to person  Five main areas of functioning may be affected:  Emotional symptoms  Feeling “miserable,” “empty,” “humiliated”  Experiencing little pleasure  Motivational symptoms  Lacking drive, initiative, spontaneity  Between 6% and 15% of those with severe depression die by suicide 8 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

9 What Are the Symptoms of Unipolar Depression?  Five main areas of functioning may be affected:  Behavioral symptoms  Less active, less productive  Cognitive symptoms  Hold negative views of themselves  Blame themselves for unfortunate events  Pessimistic  Physical symptoms  Headaches, dizzy spells, general pain 9 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

10 Diagnosing Unipolar Depression  A major depressive episode is a period of two or more weeks marked by five or more symptoms of depression  In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic, including  Hallucinations  Delusions 10 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

11 Diagnosing Unipolar Depression  DSM-5 lists several types of depressive disorders:  Major depressive disorder  People who experience a major depressive episode with no history of mania  Dysthymic disorder  Individuals who experience a longer-lasting (at least two years) but less disabling pattern of depression 11 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

12 Diagnosing Unipolar Depression  DSM-5 lists several types of depressive disorders:  Premenstrual dysphoric disorder  A diagnosis given to women who repeatedly experience clinically significant depressive symptoms during the week before menstruation  Disruptive mood regulation disorder  Characterized by a combination of persistent depressive symptoms and recurrent outbursts of severe temper 12 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

13 What Causes Unipolar Depression?  Stress may be a trigger for depression  People with depression experience a greater number of stressful life events during the month just before the onset of their symptoms  Some clinicians distinguish reactive (exogenous) depression from endogenous depression, which seems to be a response to internal factors 13 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

14 What Causes Unipolar Depression?  Today’s clinicians usually concentrate on recognizing both the situational and the internal aspects of any given case  The current explanations of unipolar depression point to biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors 14 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

15 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Genetic factors  Family pedigree, twin, adoption, and molecular biology gene studies suggest that some people inherit a biological predisposition  Researchers have found that as many as 20% of relatives of those with depression are themselves depressed, compared with fewer than 10% of the general population 15 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

16 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Genetic factors  Twin studies demonstrate a strong genetic component:  Concordance rates for identical (MZ) twins = 46%  Concordance rates for fraternal (DZ) twins = 20%  Adoption studies also have implicated a genetic factor in cases of severe unipolar depression  Using techniques from the field of molecular biology, researchers have found evidence that unipolar depression may be tied to specific genes 16 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

17 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Biochemical factors  NTs: serotonin and norepinephrine  In the 1950s, medications for high blood pressure were found to cause depression  Some lowered serotonin, others lowered norepinephrine  The discovery of truly effective antidepressant medications, which relieved depression by increasing either serotonin or norepinephrine, confirmed the NT role  Depression likely involves not just serotonin nor norepinephrine… a complicated interaction is at work, and other NTs may be involved 17 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

18 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Biochemical factors  Endocrine system / hormone release  People with depression have been found to have abnormal levels of cortisol  Released by the adrenal glands during times of stress  People with depression have been found to have abnormal melatonin secretion  “Dracula hormone”  Other researchers are investigating deficiencies of important proteins within neurons as tied to depression 18 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

19 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Biochemical factors  Model has produced much enthusiasm but has certain limitations:  Relies on analogue studies: depression-like symptoms created in lab animals  Do these symptoms correlate with human emotions?  Measuring brain activity has been difficult and indirect  Current studies using newer technology are attempting to address this issue 19 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

20 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Brain anatomy and brain circuits  Biological researchers have determined that emotional reactions of various kinds are tied to brain circuits  These are networks of brain structures that work together, triggering each other into action and producing a particular kind of emotional reaction  It appears that one circuit is tied to GAD, another to panic disorder, and yet another to OCD  Although research is far from complete, a circuit responsible for unipolar depression has begun to emerge  Likely brain areas in the circuit include the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and Brodmann Area Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

21 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Biological View  Immune System  This system is the body’s network of activities and cells that fight off bacteria and other foreign invaders  When stressed, the immune system may become dysregulated, which some believe may help produce depression  Support for this explanation is circumstantial but compelling 21 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

22 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Three main models:  Psychodynamic model  No strong research support  Behavioral model  Modest research support  Cognitive views  Considerable research support 22 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

23 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Psychodynamic view  Link between depression and grief  When a loved one dies, an unconscious process begins and the mourner regresses to the oral stage and experiences introjection – a directing of feelings for the loved one onto oneself  For most people, introjection is temporary  For some, grief worsens over time; if grief is severe and long-lasting, depression results  Those with oral stage issues (unmet or excessively met needs) are at greater risk for developing depression  Instead of actual loss, some people experience “symbolic” (or imagined) loss instead  Newer psychoanalysts (object relations theorists) propose that depression results when people’s relationships leave them feeling unsafe and insecure 23 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

24 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Psychodynamic view  Strengths:  Studies have offered general support for the psychodynamic idea that depression may be triggered by a major loss (e.g., anaclitic depression)  Research supports the theory that early losses set the stage for later depression  Research also suggests that people whose childhood needs were improperly met are more likely to become depressed after experiencing a loss 24 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

25 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Psychodynamic view  Limitations:  Early losses and inadequate parenting sometimes lead to depression but may not be typically responsible for development of the disorder  Many research findings are inconsistent  Certain features of the model are nearly impossible to test 25 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

26 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Behavioral view  Depression results from changes in rewards and punishments people receive in their lives  Lewinsohn suggests that the positive rewards in life dwindle for some people, leading them to perform fewer and fewer constructive behaviors, and they spiral toward depression  Research supports the relationship between the number of rewards received and the presence or absence of depression  Social rewards are especially important 26 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

27 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Behavioral view  Strengths:  Researchers have compiled significant data to support this theory  Limitations:  Research has relied heavily on the self-reports of depressed subjects  Behavioral studies are largely correlational and do not establish that decreases in rewards are the initial cause of depression 27 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

28 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Two main theories:  Negative thinking  Learned helplessness 28 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

29 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Negative thinking  Beck theorizes four interrelated cognitive components combine to produce unipolar depression:  Maladaptive attitudes  Self-defeating attitudes are developed during childhood  Beck suggests that upsetting situations later in life can trigger an extended round of negative thinking 29 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

30 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  This negative thinking typically takes three forms, called the cognitive triad:  Individuals repeatedly interpret (1) their experiences, (2) themselves, and (3) their futures in negative ways, leading to depression 30 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

31 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Negative thinking  Depressed people also make errors in their thinking, including:  Arbitrary inferences  Minimization of the positive and magnification of the negative  Depressed people also experience automatic thoughts  A steady train of unpleasant thoughts that suggest inadequacy and hopelessness 31 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

32 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Strengths:  Many studies have produced evidence in support of Beck’s explanation:  High correlation between the level of depression and the number of maladaptive attitudes held  Both the cognitive triad and errors in logic are seen in people with depression  Automatic thinking has been linked to depression  Limitations:  Research fails to show that such cognitive patterns are the cause and core of unipolar depression 32 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

33 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  This theory asserts that people become depressed when they think that:  They no longer have control over the reinforcements (rewards and punishments) in their lives  They themselves are responsible for this helpless state 33 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

34 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  Theory is based on Seligman’s work with laboratory dogs  Dogs subjected to uncontrollable shock were later placed in a shuttle box  Even when presented with an opportunity to escape, dogs that had experienced uncontrollable shocks made no attempt to do so  Seligman theorized that the dogs had “learned” to be “helpless” to do anything to change negative situations, and drew parallels to human depression 34 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

35 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  There has been significant research support for this model  Human subjects who undergo helplessness training score higher on depression scales and demonstrate passivity in laboratory trials  Animal subjects lose interest in sex and social activities  In rats, uncontrollable negative events result in lower serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain 35 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

36 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  Recent versions of the theory focus on attributions  Internal attributions that are global and stable lead to greater feelings of helplessness and possibly depression  Example: “It’s all my fault” [internal]. “I ruin everything I touch” [global] “and I always will” [stable].  If people make other kinds of attributions, this reaction is unlikely  Example: “She had a role in this also” [external], “the way I’ve behaved the past couple weeks blew this relationship” [specific]. “I don’t know what got into me – I don’t usually act like that” [unstable]. 36 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

37 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  Some theorists have refined the helplessness model yet again in recent years; they suggest that attributions are likely to cause depression only when they further produce a sense of hopelessness in an individual 37 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

38 What Causes Unipolar Depression? The Psychological Views  Cognitive views  Learned helplessness  Strengths:  Hundreds of studies have supported the relationship between styles of attribution, helplessness, and depression  Limitations:  Laboratory helplessness does not parallel depression in every way  Much of the research relies on animal subjects  The attributional component of the theory raises particularly difficult questions in terms of animal models of depression 38 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

39 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  Sociocultural theorists propose that unipolar depression is greatly influenced by the social context that surrounds people  This belief is supported by the finding that depression is often triggered by outside stressors  There are two kinds of sociocultural views:  The family-social perspective  The multicultural perspective 39 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

40 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Family-Social Perspective  The connection between declining social rewards and depression (as discussed by the behaviorists) is a two-way street  Depressed people often display social deficits that make other people uncomfortable and may cause them to avoid the depressed individuals  This leads to decreased social contact and a further deterioration of social skills 40 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

41 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Family-Social Perspective  Consistent with these findings, depression has been tied repeatedly to the unavailability of social support such as that found in a happy marriage  People who are separated or divorced display three times the depression rate of married or widowed persons and double the rate of people who have never been married  There also is a high correlation between level of marital conflict and degree of sadness that is particularly strong among those who are clinically depressed  It also appears that people who are isolated and without intimacy are particularly likely to become depressed in times of stress 41 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

42 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Two kinds of relationships have captured the interest of multicultural theorists:  Gender and depression  A strong link exists between gender and depression  Women cross-culturally are twice as likely as men to receive a diagnosis of unipolar depression  Women also appear to be younger, have more frequent and longer-lasting bouts, and to respond less successfully to treatment 42 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

43 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  A variety of theories has been offered:  The artifact theory holds that women and men are equally prone to depression, but that clinicians often fail to detect depression in men  The hormone explanation holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women  The life stress theory suggests that women in our society experience more stress than men 43 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

44 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  A variety of theories has been offered:  The body dissatisfaction theory state that females in Western society are taught, almost from birth, to seek a low body weight and slender body shape – goals that are unreasonable, unhealthy, and often unattainable  The lack-of-control theory picks up the learned helplessness research and argues that women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over their lives 44 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

45 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  A variety of theories has been offered:  The rumination theory holds that people who ruminate when sad – keep focusing on their feelings and repeatedly consider the causes and consequences of their depression – are more likely to become depressed and stay depressed longer 45 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

46 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Each explanation offers food for thought and has gathered just enough supporting evidence to make it interesting (and just enough contrary evidence to raise question about its usefulness) 46 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

47 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Two kinds of relationships have captured the interest of multicultural theorists:  Cultural background and depression  Depression is a worldwide phenomenon, and certain symptoms seem to be constant across all countries, including sadness, joylessness, anxiety, tension, lack of energy, loss of interest, and thoughts of suicide  Beyond such core symptoms, research suggests that the precise picture of depression varies from country to country 47 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

48 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Depressed people in non-Western countries are more likely to be troubled by physical symptoms of depression than by cognitive ones  As countries become more Westernized, depression seems to take on the more cognitive character it has in the West 48 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

49 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Within the United States, researchers have found few differences in depression symptoms among members of different ethnic or racial groups, however, often striking differences exist between racial/ethnic groups on the chronicity of depression  Hispanic Americans and African Americans are 50 percent more likely than white Americans to have recurrent episodes of depression - a finding possibly related to limited treatment opportunities 49 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

50 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  In addition, although overall depression rates are similar, differences exist in specific populations living under oppressive circumstances  In a study of one Native American village, lifetime risk was 37% among women, 19% among men, and 28% overall  These findings are thought to be the result of economic and social pressures 50 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

51 What Causes Unipolar Depression? Sociocultural Views  The Multicultural Perspective  Finally, research has revealed that depression is distributed unevenly within some minority groups  This is not totally surprising, given that each minority group itself is comprised of persons of varied backgrounds and cultural values 51 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

52 Bipolar Disorders  People with a bipolar disorder experience both the lows of depression and the highs of mania  Many describe their lives as an emotional roller coaster 52 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

53 What Are the Symptoms of Mania?  Unlike those experiencing depression, people in a state of mania typically experience dramatic and inappropriate rises in mood  Five main areas of functioning may be affected:  Emotional symptoms  Active, powerful emotions in search of outlet  Motivational symptoms  Need for constant excitement, involvement, companionship 53 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

54 What Are the Symptoms of Mania?  Five main areas of functioning may be affected:  Behavioral symptoms  Very active – move quickly; talk loudly or rapidly  Flamboyance is not uncommon  Cognitive symptoms  Show poor judgment or planning  May have trouble remaining coherent or in touch with reality  Physical symptoms  High energy level – often in the presence of little or no rest 54 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

55 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  People are considered to be in a full manic episode when, for at least one week, they display an abnormally high or irritable mood, increased activity or energy, and at least three other symptoms of mania  In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic  When symptoms are less severe, the person is said to be experiencing a hypomanic episode 55 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

56 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  DSM-5 distinguishes two kinds of bipolar disorder:  Bipolar I disorder  Full manic and major depressive episodes  Most experience an alternation of episodes  Some have mixed episodes  Bipolar II disorder  Hypomanic episodes alternate with major depressive episodes 56 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

57 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  Without treatment, the mood episodes tend to recur for people with either type of bipolar disorder  If people experience four or more episodes within a one-year period, their disorder is further classified as rapid cycling  If their episodes vary with the seasons, their disorder is further classified as seasonal 57 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

58 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  Regardless of particular pattern, individuals with bipolar disorder tend to experience depression more than mania over the years  In most cases, depressive episodes occur three times as often as manic ones, and last longer 58 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

59 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  Between 1% and 2.6% of all adults in the world suffer from a bipolar disorder at any given time, and as many as 4% over the course of their lives  Bipolar I seems to be a bit more common than Bipolar II  The disorders are equally common in women and men  Women may experience more depressive episodes and fewer manic episodes than men and rapid cycling is more common in women  The disorders are more common among people with low incomes than those with high incomes 59 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

60 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  Onset usually occurs between the ages of 15 and 44 years  In most cases, the manic and depressive episodes eventually subside, only to recur at a later time  Generally, when episodes recur, the intervening periods of normality grow shorter and shorter 60 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

61 Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders  A final diagnostic option:  When a person experiences numerous episodes of hypomania and mild depressive symptoms, a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is assigned  Mild symptoms for two or more years, interrupted by periods of normal mood  Affects at least 0.4% of the population  May eventually blossom into bipolar I or II disorder 61 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

62 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the search for the cause of bipolar disorders made little progress  More recently, biological research has produced some promising clues  These insights have come from research into NT activity, ion activity, brain structure, and genetic factors 62 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

63 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Neurotransmitters  After finding a relationship between low norepinephrine and unipolar depression, early researchers expected to find a link between high norepinephrine levels and mania  This theory is supported by some research studies; bipolar disorders may be related to overactivity of norepinephrine 63 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

64 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Neurotransmitters  Because serotonin activity often parallels norepinephrine activity in unipolar depression, theorists expected that mania would also be related to high serotonin activity  Although no relationship with high serotonin has been found, bipolar disorder may be linked to low serotonin activity, which seems contradictory… 64 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

65 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Neurotransmitters  This apparent contradiction is addressed by the “permissive theory” about mood disorders:  Low serotonin may “open the door” to a mood disorder and permit norepinephrine activity to define the particular form the disorder will take:  Low serotonin + Low norepinephrine = Depression  Low serotonin + High norepinephrine = Mania 65 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

66 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Ion activity  Ions, which are needed to send incoming messages to nerve endings, may be improperly transported through the cells of individuals with bipolar disorder  Some theorists believe that irregularities in the transport of these ions may cause neurons to fire too easily (mania) or to stubbornly resist firing (depression)  There is some research support for this theory 66 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

67 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Brain structure  Brain imaging and postmortem studies have identified a number of abnormal brain structures in people with bipolar disorder; in particular, the basal ganglia and cerebellum among others  It is not clear what role such structural abnormalities play 67 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

68 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Genetic factors  Many theorists believe that people inherit a biological predisposition to develop bipolar disorders  Family pedigree studies support this theory:  Identical (MZ) twins = 40% likelihood  Fraternal (DZ) twins and siblings = 5% to 10% likelihood  General population = 1 to 2.6% likelihood 68 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update

69 What Causes Bipolar Disorders?  Genetic factors  Researchers have conducted genetic linkage studies to identify possible patterns of inheritance  Other researchers are using techniques from molecular biology to further examine genetic patterns in large families  Such wide-ranging findings suggest that a number of genetic abnormalities probably combine to help bring about bipolar disorders 69 Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e DSM-5 Update


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