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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 15 Health, Stress, and Coping.

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1 Table of Contents Exit Chapter 15 Health, Stress, and Coping

2 Table of Contents Exit Health Psychology and Behavioral Risk Factors Health Psychology: Uses behavioral principles to prevent illness and promote health Behavioral Medicine: Applies psychology to manage medical problems e.g., asthma and diabetes Lifestyle Diseases: Diseases related to health-damaging personal habits

3 Table of Contents Exit Health Psychology and Behavioral Risk Factors (cont.) Behavioral Risk Factors: Behaviors that increase the chances of disease, injury, or premature death Disease-Prone Personality: Personality type associated with poor health; person tends to be chronically depressed, anxious, hostile, and frequently ill

4 Table of Contents Exit Ways to Promote Health and Early Prevention Refusal Skills Training: Program that teaches young people how to resist pressures to begin smoking Life Skills Training: Teaches stress reduction, self-protection, decision making, self-control, and social skills Role Model: Person who serves as a positive example of good and desirable behavior Wellness: Positive state of good health and well-being

5 Table of Contents Exit Fig The nine leading causes of death in the United States are shown in this graph. As you can see, eight of the top nine causes are directly related to behavioral risk factors (infection is the exception). At least 45 percent of all deaths can be traced to unhealthful behavior. Although suicide is not shown here, it is the seventh most common cause of death. On this graph, suicides are included in the categories: death by toxic agents, firearms, motor vehicles, and drugs. (Data from McGinnis & Foege, 1993.)

6 Table of Contents Exit Table 15.2 – Major health- promoting behaviors

7 Table of Contents Exit Stress Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment Includes marital and financial problems Stress Reaction: Physical reaction to stress Autonomic Nervous System is aroused Stressor: Condition or event that challenges or threatens the person Pressure: When a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations

8 Table of Contents Exit Fig Stress is the product of an interchange between a person and the environment.

9 Table of Contents Exit CNN - Shrinking Brains

10 Table of Contents Exit Burnout Burnout: Job-related condition (usually in helping professions) of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion Emotional Exhaustion: Feel “used up” and apathetic toward work Cynicism: Detachment from the job Feeling of reduced personal accomplishment

11 Table of Contents Exit Appraising Stressors Threat: Event or situation perceived as potentially harmful Primary Appraisal: Deciding if a situation is relevant or irrelevant, positive or threatening Secondary Appraisal: Assess resources and decide how to cope with a threat or challenge Perceived lack of control is just as threatening as an actual lack of control

12 Table of Contents Exit Threats and Frustration Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or altering the distressing situation Emotion-Focused Coping: Trying to control one’s emotional reactions to the situation Frustration: Negative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching desired goals External Frustration: Based on external conditions that impede progress toward a goal Personal Frustration: Caused by personal characteristics that impede progress toward a goal

13 Table of Contents Exit Reactions to Frustration Aggression: Any response made with the intention of harming a person, animal, or object Displaced Aggression: Redirecting aggression to a target other than the source of one’s frustration Scapegoating: Blaming a person or group for conditions they did not create; the scapegoat is a habitual target of displaced aggression

14 Table of Contents Exit Reactions to Frustration (cont.) Escape: May mean actually leaving a source of frustration (dropping out of school) or psychologically escaping (apathy) Conflict: Stressful condition that occurs when a person must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands

15 Table of Contents Exit Fig Frustration and common reactions to it.

16 Table of Contents Exit Conflicts Approach-Approach Conflicts: Having to choose between two desirable or positive alternatives (e.g., choosing between a new BMW or Mercedes) Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts: Being forced to choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives (e.g., choosing between going to the doctor or contracting cancer) NOT choosing may be impossible or undesirable

17 Table of Contents Exit Fig Three basic forms of conflict. For this woman, choosing between pie and ice cream is a minor approach-approach conflict; deciding whether to take a job that will require weekend work is an approach- avoidance conflict; and choosing between paying higher rent and moving is an avoidance-avoidance conflict.

18 Table of Contents Exit Fig Conflict diagrams. As shown by the colored areas in the graphs, desires to approach and to avoid increase near a goal. The effects of these tendencies are depicted below each graph. The “behavior” of the ball in each example illustrates the nature of the conflict above it. An approach conflict (left) is easily decided. Moving toward one goal will increase its attraction (graph) and will lead to a rapid resolution. (If the ball moves in either direction, it will go all the way to one of the goals.) In an avoidance conflict (center), tendencies to avoid are deadlocked, resulting in inaction. In an approach-avoidance conflict (right), approach proceeds to the point where desires to approach and avoid cancel each other. Again, these tendencies are depicted (below) by the action of the ball. (Graphs after Miller, 1944.)

19 Table of Contents Exit Conflicts (cont.) Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Being attracted (drawn to) and repelled by the same goal or activity; attraction keeps person in the situation, but negative aspects can cause distress Ambivalence: Mixed positive and negative feelings; central characteristic of approach-avoidance conflicts

20 Table of Contents Exit Multiple Conflicts Double Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Each alternative has both positive and negative qualities Vacillation: When one is attracted to both choices; seeing the positives and negatives of both choices and going “back and forth” before deciding, if deciding at all! Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: When several alternatives have positive and negative features

21 Table of Contents Exit Anxiety Feelings of tension, uneasiness, apprehension, worry, and vulnerability We are motivated to avoid experiencing anxiety

22 Table of Contents Exit Freudian Defense Mechanisms; Psychological Defenders of You! Defense Mechanisms: Habitual and unconscious (in most cases) mental processes designed to reduce anxiety Work by avoiding, denying, or distorting sources of threat or anxiety If used short term, can help us get through everyday situations If used long term, we may end up not living in reality Most operate unconsciously Protect idealized self-image so we can live with ourselves

23 Table of Contents Exit Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Some Examples Denial: Most primitive; refusing to accept or believe reality; usually occurs with death and illness Repression: When painful memories, anxieties, and so on are unconsciously held out of our awareness Reaction Formation: Impulses are repressed and the opposite behavior is exaggerated

24 Table of Contents Exit More Freudian Defense Mechanisms Projection: When one’s own feelings, shortcomings, or unacceptable traits and impulses are seen in others; exaggerating negative traits in others lowers anxiety Rationalization: Justifying personal actions by giving “rational” but false reasons for them

25 Table of Contents Exit Learned Helplessness (Seligman) Acquired (learned) inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli; learned passivity Occurs when events appear to be uncontrollable May feel helpless if failure is attributed to lasting, general factors

26 Table of Contents Exit Fig In the normal course of escape and avoidance learning, a light dims shortly before the floor is electrified (a). Since the light does not yet have meaning for the dog, the dog receives a shock (non- injurious, by the way) and leaps the barrier (b). Dogs soon learn to watch for the dimming of the light (c) and to jump before receiving a shock (d). Dogs made to feel “helpless” rarely even learn to escape shock, much less to avoid it.

27 Table of Contents Exit Depression State of feeling despondent defined by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness One of the most common mental problems in the world Childhood depression is dramatically increasing Some symptoms: Loss of appetite or sex drive, decreased activity, sleeping too much

28 Table of Contents Exit Mastery Training Mastery Training: Responses are reinforced that lead to mastery of a threat or control over one’s environment One method to combat learned helplessness and depression

29 Table of Contents Exit How to Recognize Depression (Beck) You have a consistently negative opinion of yourself You engage in frequent self-criticism and self- blame You place negative interpretations on events that usually would not bother you The future looks grim You can’t handle your responsibilities and feel overwhelmed

30 Table of Contents Exit CNN – Elderly Depression

31 Table of Contents Exit Stress and Health Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): Rates the impact of various life events on the likelihood of contracting illness Not a foolproof method of rating stress Are positive life events (getting married, having a child) always stressful? People also differ in their reactions to stress Microstressors (Hassles): Minor but frequent stresses

32 Table of Contents Exit Psychosomatic Disorders Psychological factors contribute to actual illnesses (bodily damage) or to damaging changes in bodily functioning Hypochondriacs: Complain about diseases that appear to be imaginary Certain kinds of ulcers are not psychosomatic Most common complaints: respiratory and gastrointestinal

33 Table of Contents Exit Biofeedback Applying informational feedback to bodily control Aids voluntary regulation of activities such as blood pressure, heart rate, and so on Helpful but not an instant cure May help relieve muscle-tension headaches, migraine headaches, and chronic pain

34 Table of Contents Exit Fig In biofeedback training, bodily processes are monitored and processed electronically. A signal is then routed back to the patient through headphones, signal lights, or other means. This information helps the patient alter bodily activities not normally under voluntary control.

35 Table of Contents Exit Cardiac Personalities Type A Personality: Personality type with elevated risk of heart attack; characterized by time urgency and chronic anger or hostility Anger may be the key factor of this behavior Type B Personality: All types other than Type A’s; unlikely to have a heart attack

36 Table of Contents Exit Hardy Personality Personality type associated with superior stress resistance Sense of personal commitment to self and family Feel they have control over their lives See life as a series of challenges, not threats

37 Table of Contents Exit General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS; Selye) Series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress; occurs in three stages Alarm Reaction: Body resources are mobilized to cope with added stress Stage of Resistance: Body adjusts to stress but at a high physical cost; resistance to other stressors is lowered Stage of Exhaustion: Body’s resources are drained and stress hormones are depleted, possibly resulting in psychosomatic disease, loss of health, or complete collapse

38 Table of Contents Exit Immunity (Similar to “Survivor”?) Immune System: Mobilizes bodily defenses, like white blood cells, against invading microbes and other diseases Psychoneuroimmunology: Study of connections among behavior, stress, disease, and immune system

39 Table of Contents Exit Stress Management Use of behavioral strategies to reduce stress and improve coping skills Progressive Relaxation: Produces deep relaxation throughout the body by tightening all muscles in an area and then relaxing them Guided Imagery: Visualizing images that are calming, relaxing, or beneficial

40 Table of Contents Exit CNN – Road Rage

41 Table of Contents Exit Avoiding Upsetting Thoughts Stress Inoculation: Using positive coping statements internally to control fear and anxiety; designed to combat: Negative Self-Statements: Self-critical thoughts that increase anxiety and lower performance Coping Statements: Reassuring, self- enhancing statements used to stop negative self-statements

42 Table of Contents Exit Meditation Mental exercise designed to focus attention and interrupt flow of thoughts, worries, and analyses Concentrative Meditation: Attention is paid to a single focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.) Produces relaxation response and thus works to reduce stress Receptive Meditation: Based on widening attention span to become aware of everything experienced at a given moment

43 Table of Contents Exit Meditation (cont.) Mantra: Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently during concentrative meditation Relaxation Response: Occurs at time of relaxation; innate physiological response that opposes fight or flight responses


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