Presentation on theme: "Health, Stress, and Coping"— Presentation transcript:
1 Health, Stress, and Coping Chapter 15Health, Stress, and Coping
2 Health Psychology and Behavioral Risk Factors Health Psychology: Uses behavioral principles to prevent illness and promote healthBehavioral Medicine: Applies psychology to manage medical problems e.g., asthma and diabetesLifestyle Diseases: Diseases related to health-damaging personal habits
3 Health Psychology and Behavioral Risk Factors (cont.) Behavioral Risk Factors: Behaviors that increase the chances of disease, injury, or premature deathDisease-Prone Personality: Personality type associated with poor health; person tends to be chronically depressed, anxious, hostile, and frequently ill
4 Ways to Promote Health and Early Prevention Refusal Skills Training: Program that teaches young people how to resist pressures to begin smokingLife Skills Training: Teaches stress reduction, self-protection, decision making, self-control, and social skillsRole Model: Person who serves as a positive example of good and desirable behaviorWellness: Positive state of good health and well-being
5 Fig The nine leading causes of death in the United States are shown in this graph. As you can see, eight of the top nine causes are directly related to behavioral risk factors (infection is the exception). At least 45 percent of all deaths can be traced to unhealthful behavior. Although suicide is not shown here, it is the seventh most common cause of death. On this graph, suicides are included in the categories: death by toxic agents, firearms, motor vehicles, and drugs. (Data from McGinnis & Foege, 1993.)
7 StressMental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environmentIncludes marital and financial problemsStress Reaction: Physical reaction to stressAutonomic Nervous System is arousedStressor: Condition or event that challenges or threatens the personPressure: When a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations
8 Fig. 15.2. Stress is the product of an interchange between a person and the environment.
10 BurnoutBurnout: Job-related condition (usually in helping professions) of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustionEmotional Exhaustion: Feel “used up” and apathetic toward workCynicism: Detachment from the jobFeeling of reduced personal accomplishment
11 Appraising StressorsThreat: Event or situation perceived as potentially harmfulPrimary Appraisal: Deciding if a situation is relevant or irrelevant, positive or threateningSecondary Appraisal: Assess resources and decide how to cope with a threat or challengePerceived lack of control is just as threatening as an actual lack of control
12 Threats and Frustration Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or altering the distressing situationEmotion-Focused Coping: Trying to control one’s emotional reactions to the situationFrustration: Negative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching desired goalsExternal Frustration: Based on external conditions that impede progress toward a goalPersonal Frustration: Caused by personal characteristics that impede progress toward a goal
13 Reactions to Frustration Aggression: Any response made with the intention of harming a person, animal, or objectDisplaced Aggression: Redirecting aggression to a target other than the source of one’s frustrationScapegoating: Blaming a person or group for conditions they did not create; the scapegoat is a habitual target of displaced aggression
14 Reactions to Frustration (cont.) Escape: May mean actually leaving a source of frustration (dropping out of school) or psychologically escaping (apathy)Conflict: Stressful condition that occurs when a person must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands
15 Fig. 15.3 Frustration and common reactions to it.
16 ConflictsApproach-Approach Conflicts: Having to choose between two desirable or positive alternatives (e.g., choosing between a new BMW or Mercedes)Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts: Being forced to choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives (e.g., choosing between going to the doctor or contracting cancer)NOT choosing may be impossible or undesirable
17 Fig. 15. 4 Three basic forms of conflict Fig Three basic forms of conflict. For this woman, choosing between pie and ice cream is a minor approach-approach conflict; deciding whether to take a job that will require weekend work is an approach-avoidance conflict; and choosing between paying higher rent and moving is an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
18 Fig Conflict diagrams. As shown by the colored areas in the graphs, desires to approach and to avoid increase near a goal. The effects of these tendencies are depicted below each graph. The “behavior” of the ball in each example illustrates the nature of the conflict above it. An approach conflict (left) is easily decided. Moving toward one goal will increase its attraction (graph) and will lead to a rapid resolution. (If the ball moves in either direction, it will go all the way to one of the goals.) In an avoidance conflict (center), tendencies to avoid are deadlocked, resulting in inaction. In an approach-avoidance conflict (right), approach proceeds to the point where desires to approach and avoid cancel each other. Again, these tendencies are depicted (below) by the action of the ball. (Graphs after Miller, 1944.)
19 Conflicts (cont.)Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Being attracted (drawn to) and repelled by the same goal or activity; attraction keeps person in the situation, but negative aspects can cause distressAmbivalence: Mixed positive and negative feelings; central characteristic of approach-avoidance conflicts
20 Multiple ConflictsDouble Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Each alternative has both positive and negative qualitiesVacillation: When one is attracted to both choices; seeing the positives and negatives of both choices and going “back and forth” before deciding, if deciding at all!Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: When several alternatives have positive and negative features
21 AnxietyFeelings of tension, uneasiness, apprehension, worry, and vulnerabilityWe are motivated to avoid experiencing anxiety
22 Freudian Defense Mechanisms; Psychological Defenders of You! Defense Mechanisms: Habitual and unconscious (in most cases) mental processes designed to reduce anxietyWork by avoiding, denying, or distorting sources of threat or anxietyIf used short term, can help us get through everyday situationsIf used long term, we may end up not living in realityMost operate unconsciouslyProtect idealized self-image so we can live with ourselves
23 Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Some Examples Denial: Most primitive; refusing to accept or believe reality; usually occurs with death and illnessRepression: When painful memories, anxieties, and so on are unconsciously held out of our awarenessReaction Formation: Impulses are repressed and the opposite behavior is exaggerated
24 More Freudian Defense Mechanisms Projection: When one’s own feelings, shortcomings, or unacceptable traits and impulses are seen in others; exaggerating negative traits in others lowers anxietyRationalization: Justifying personal actions by giving “rational” but false reasons for them
25 Learned Helplessness (Seligman) Acquired (learned) inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli; learned passivityOccurs when events appear to be uncontrollableMay feel helpless if failure is attributed to lasting, general factors
26 Fig In the normal course of escape and avoidance learning, a light dims shortly before the floor is electrified (a). Since the light does not yet have meaning for the dog, the dog receives a shock (non-injurious, by the way) and leaps the barrier (b). Dogs soon learn to watch for the dimming of the light (c) and to jump before receiving a shock (d). Dogs made to feel “helpless” rarely even learn to escape shock, much less to avoid it.
27 DepressionState of feeling despondent defined by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessnessOne of the most common mental problems in the worldChildhood depression is dramatically increasingSome symptoms: Loss of appetite or sex drive, decreased activity, sleeping too much
28 Mastery TrainingMastery Training: Responses are reinforced that lead to mastery of a threat or control over one’s environmentOne method to combat learned helplessness and depression
29 How to Recognize Depression (Beck) You have a consistently negative opinion of yourselfYou engage in frequent self-criticism and self-blameYou place negative interpretations on events that usually would not bother youThe future looks grimYou can’t handle your responsibilities and feel overwhelmed
31 Stress and HealthSocial Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): Rates the impact of various life events on the likelihood of contracting illnessNot a foolproof method of rating stressAre positive life events (getting married, having a child) always stressful?People also differ in their reactions to stressMicrostressors (Hassles): Minor but frequent stresses
32 Psychosomatic Disorders Psychological factors contribute to actual illnesses (bodily damage) or to damaging changes in bodily functioningHypochondriacs: Complain about diseases that appear to be imaginaryCertain kinds of ulcers are not psychosomaticMost common complaints: respiratory and gastrointestinal
33 Biofeedback Applying informational feedback to bodily control Aids voluntary regulation of activities such as blood pressure, heart rate, and so onHelpful but not an instant cureMay help relieve muscle-tension headaches, migraine headaches, and chronic pain
34 Fig In biofeedback training, bodily processes are monitored and processed electronically. A signal is then routed back to the patient through headphones, signal lights, or other means. This information helps the patient alter bodily activities not normally under voluntary control.
35 Cardiac Personalities Type A Personality: Personality type with elevated risk of heart attack; characterized by time urgency and chronic anger or hostilityAnger may be the key factor of this behaviorType B Personality: All types other than Type A’s; unlikely to have a heart attack
36 Hardy PersonalityPersonality type associated with superior stress resistanceSense of personal commitment to self and familyFeel they have control over their livesSee life as a series of challenges, not threats
37 General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS; Selye) Series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress; occurs in three stagesAlarm Reaction: Body resources are mobilized to cope with added stressStage of Resistance: Body adjusts to stress but at a high physical cost; resistance to other stressors is loweredStage of Exhaustion: Body’s resources are drained and stress hormones are depleted, possibly resulting in psychosomatic disease, loss of health, or complete collapse
38 Immunity (Similar to “Survivor”?) Immune System: Mobilizes bodily defenses, like white blood cells, against invading microbes and other diseasesPsychoneuroimmunology: Study of connections among behavior, stress, disease, and immune system
39 Stress ManagementUse of behavioral strategies to reduce stress and improve coping skillsProgressive Relaxation: Produces deep relaxation throughout the body by tightening all muscles in an area and then relaxing themGuided Imagery: Visualizing images that are calming, relaxing, or beneficial
41 Avoiding Upsetting Thoughts Stress Inoculation: Using positive coping statements internally to control fear and anxiety; designed to combat:Negative Self-Statements: Self-critical thoughts that increase anxiety and lower performanceCoping Statements: Reassuring, self-enhancing statements used to stop negative self-statements
42 MeditationMental exercise designed to focus attention and interrupt flow of thoughts, worries, and analysesConcentrative Meditation: Attention is paid to a single focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.)Produces relaxation response and thus works to reduce stressReceptive Meditation: Based on widening attention span to become aware of everything experienced at a given moment
43 Meditation (cont.)Mantra: Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently during concentrative meditationRelaxation Response: Occurs at time of relaxation; innate physiological response that opposes fight or flight responses