2 CHAPTER 10 Motivation:An activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior. It is the reason for behavior. Motive:An unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. Involvement and Affect Actual State Stimulus Desired State Need Recognition Drive State Goal- directed Behavior Incentive Objects Consumer Motivation
3 CHAPTER 10 5.Self-actualization: This involves the desire for self- fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming. 4.Esteem: Desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem needs. These needs relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. 3.Belongingness: Belongingness motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance. 2.Safety: Feeling physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth are manifestations of safety needs. They are aroused after physiological motives are minimally satisfied, and before other motives. 1.Physiological: Food, water, sleep, and to a limited extent, sex, are physiological motives. Unless they are minimally satisfied, other motives are not activated. Maslow’s Motive Hierarchy Advanced Basic
4 CHAPTER 10 Marketing Strategies and Maslow’s Hierarchy
5 CHAPTER 10 McGuire’s Psychological Motives Classification System with 16 categories Two criteria determine 4 major categories: Is mode of motivation cognitive or affective? Is the motive focused on preservation or growth? Four categories subdivided further: Is the behavior initiated or a response? Is this behavior internal or external?
6 CHAPTER 10 McGuire’s Cognitive Motives Cognitive Preservation Motives Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) Cognitive Growth Motives Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need (passive, external)
7 CHAPTER 10 McGuire’s Affective Motives Affective Preservation Motives: Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Affective Growth Motives: Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling (passive, external)
8 CHAPTER 10 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Discovering Purchase Motives Marketing Strategies Based on Multiple Motives Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation Conflict Do Marketers Create Needs?
15 CHAPTER 10 Personality Theory Two Common Assumptions: All individuals have internal characteristics or traits Consistent and Measurable differences between individuals
16 CHAPTER 10 Consumer Insight 10-1 What problems and issues would arise in segmenting a market into high- and low-NFC segments? What implications does each of the nine research findings described above have for marketing practice? How do you think media preferences would vary between high- and low-NFC consumers?
17 CHAPTER 10 The Five-Factor Model of Personality
19 CHAPTER 10 Brand personality Describe the personality of the following: Arizona Iced Tea Intel Blockbuster Video Wal-Mart Toyota Dr. Pepper Aquafina Seiko Texas Instruments Nordstroms
20 CHAPTER 10 Brand personality What personality characteristics come to mind for the following: Brand is repositioned several times or changes its slogan repeatedly Brand uses continuing character in its advertising Brand charges a high price and uses exclusive distribution Brand frequently available on deal Brand offers many line extensions Brand sponsors show on PBS or uses recycled materials Brand features easy-to-use packaging or speaks at consumer’s level in advertising Brand offers seasonal clearance sale Brand offers five-year warranty or free customer hot line
25 CHAPTER 10 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion arousal as a product benefit Emotion reduction as a product benefit Emotion in advertising Enhances attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities Processed more thoroughly May be remembered better
26 CHAPTER 10 Measuring Emotional Arousal Emotional Measurement System Developed by BBDO 26 emotions triggered by ads Galvanic Skin Response Small electrodes that monitor the skin Lie detector test
27 CHAPTER 10 Emotional Arousal & Mail Response Rates