Presentation on theme: "LIN 1310 TOPIC 3 MORPHOLOGY. Morphology is the study of the structure of words Many words can be divided into meaningful subparts These subparts are not."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology is the study of the structure of words Many words can be divided into meaningful subparts These subparts are not necessarily words by themselves
MORPHOLOGY For example, ‘friend’ can become: ‘friendly’ ‘unfriendly’ ‘friendliness’ ‘friendship’ ‘friendless’ ‘friendlessness’ ‘befriend’ ‘befriended’ ‘user-friendly’ ‘friends’
MORPHOLOGY The sequences in blue added to the root ‘friend’ occur in lots of other words, where they have a similar meaning and/or function For example: ‘likely’ ‘unlikely’ ‘loneliness’ ‘comradeship’ ‘luckless’ ‘lucklessness’ ‘bewitch’ ‘bewitched’
MORPHOLOGY Another example of a recurring sequence with more or less the same meaning are the following ‘phon’ words phone phonologist allophone phonetic phonological telephone phonetician phonic telephonic phonetics phoneme euphonious phonology phonemic ‘Phon’ seems to refer in some manner to speech
Other parts of ‘phon’ words are found in other words telephone - telegraph - phonetics – cybernetics Note also -ing in going, seeing, eating mem- in memory, memorize, memorial, remember un- in unfamiliar, unclear, unrepentant, undue -s in dogs, cats, chairs, telephones, pens, shoes
Notice that un- occurs at the beginning of the words and -ing occurs at the end English does not permit such forms as *ingeat *nesshappy *happyun *groupre *orizemem *sdog Thus, there appear to be rules governing the formation of words These rules make up the morphology of the language The subparts of words are called morphemes
FACTS ABOUT MORPHEMES 1.Morphemes are minimal units of meaning or grammatical form in a language 2.Morphemes are not necessarily words on their own Some words do consist of a single morpheme These are monomorphemic or simple words (e.g. ‘dog’, ‘banana’) Some words consist of more than one morpheme These are polymorphemic words or complex (e.g. ‘dogs’ = 2 morphemes, ‘unhappiness’ = 3 morphemes)
FACTS ABOUT MORPHEMES 3.Morphemes are not equivalent to syllables There are: one syllable morphemes (e.g. ‘dog’, ‘play’, ‘eat’) two syllable morphemes (e.g. ‘onion’, ‘table’) several syllable morphemes (e.g. ‘banana’) A morpheme may even consist of: a single sound segment e.g. plural ‘s’ in ‘hats’, ‘coats’, ‘cats’ and past tense ‘d’ in ‘played’, ‘dyed’, ‘dried’
FACTS ABOUT MORPHEMES 4.A morpheme is a recurring sequence of segments with a constant meaning and/or function Identify which of the following words contain the morpheme ‘un’ that reverses the meaning of many adjectives and verbs such as ‘undesirable’ or ‘undo’ ‘blunder’ ‘run’ ‘under’ ‘unhappy’ ‘unsure’
FACTS ABOUT MORPHEMES 5.A morpheme may have more than one pronunciation. allomorphs: alternative pronunciations of a morpheme EXAMPLES: The plural morpheme ‘s’ in English has three alternative pronunciations or allomorphs: [s] [z] [ z] The definite article is pronounced either ‘a’ or ‘an’.
Allomorphs Allomorphs are alternative pronunciations of a morpheme. Spelling is irrelevant. Allomorphs can share the same spelling, but still be pronounced differently. The three allomorphs of the English plural [ s ] [ z ] [ ə z ] are all written using an ‘s’, yet two of them are pronounced with ‘z’.
Spelling Variants A morpheme can have two or more spellings in English. If the pronunciation remains the same, these are not considered allomorphs of one another. They are simply spelling variants of the same one morpheme. For example: hide and hid from ‘hiding’ are spelling variants of the same morpheme.
CATEGORIES OF MORPHEMES Distributionally, morphemes are of two general types: Free or Bound Morphemes Free morphemes free morphemes can stand alone as simple words Example: ‘dog’, ‘house’, ‘run’, ‘banana’, ‘table’, ‘it’, ‘on’ English has many free morphemes some languages have very few free morphemes
CATEGORIES OF MORPHEMES Bound morphemes bound morphemes cannot stand alone as words they must be attached to at least one other morpheme before they can occur in an actual utterance Examples: -English plural ‘s’ and -past tense ‘ed’ Languages differ from one another in what concepts they encode as free or bound.
Bound or Free? English marks the past tense of regular verbs with the bound morpheme ‘ed’ as in ‘they wait’ (present) ‘they waited’ (past) Thai marks the past tense with a free morpheme ‘l ЄЄ w’ : Boon thaan khaaw l ЄЄ w Boon eat rice past ‘Boon ate rice’
CATEGORIES OF MORPHEMES Affixes and Roots as parts of words, morphemes can be affixes or roots Roots serve as the core of words Roots provide the primary meaning of words Affixes are added to roots (or bases) and modify the meaning and/or function of a root
Roots and Bases The terms root and base are sometimes used interchangeably However, their meanings are somewhat different. Base refers to a form that an affix is added to. Of course affixes can be added to roots. In such cases the root and the base are the same. Affixes can also be added to a unit larger than a root. Thus a base may also consist of a root plus another affix or affixes.
Roots and Bases In the word ‘lawful’, ‘law’ is both the root of the word and the base to which the affix ‘ful’ is attached. We can diagram the structure of this word using a tree structure as follows:
‘law’ as base and root for ‘lawful’ A NAf law ful
Roots and Bases When we create the word ‘unlawful’ from ‘lawful’, the root is still ‘law’ ‘law’ is still the base that we added ‘ful’ to ‘lawful’ now serves as the base to which we add ‘un’ This is depicted in the following tree diagram
‘lawful’ as base for ‘unlawful’ A A AfNAf unlawful
Labeling word trees Note that we label the nodes in tree diagrams according to the parts of speech of the root and the new words created by adding affixes to the root. Thus ‘law’ is N for noun ‘lawful’ is A for adjective ‘unlawful’ is A for adjective
unlawful In the word ‘unlawful’, the root law provides the core meaning of the word. ‘ful’ is an affix that changes ‘law’ from a noun to an adjective ‘un’ is an affix which reverses the meaning of ‘lawful’ This gives us a hint as to the function of some types of affixes.
Consider the following when drawing a tree diagramming ‘blackened’: What is the root? What part of speech is the root? What affix is added to the root? What word does this yield? What is its part of speech? Does it serve as the base for another affix? What is the part of speech of the word resulting from the addition of this other affix?
blackened The adjective ‘black’ is the root (and base) to which we add the suffix ‘en’ ‘black + en’ is a verb. The verb ‘blacken’ is the base to which we add the suffix ‘ed’. ‘blackened’ is still a verb, as the suffix ‘ed’ does not change the part of speech of the base.
Roots, bases and affixes V V AAf Af black-en -ed
AFFIXES Positionally, there are four types of affixes: 1. Prefixes 2. Suffixes 3. Infixes (and Trilateral Roots) 4. Circumfixes 1. Prefixes are added before the root, as in ‘redo’ 2. Suffixes are added after the root, as in ‘reader’
Load on the affixes In many languages, a word can have more than one prefix or suffix. English example: ‘helplessness’ Noun (N) base/root ‘help’ + suffix ‘less’ to yield the adjective ‘helpless’ ‘helpless’ serves as the base for the suffix ‘ness’ to yield the noun (N) ‘helplessness’
3. Infixes Infixes are inserted into the body of the root English does not have infixes Below are some examples of infixes in Bontoc, a language spoken in the Philippines
Infixes – Trilateral Roots Trilateral roots consist of three consonants to which other elements, mostly vowels, are added or infixed Trilateral roots are found in several Semitic languages, including Arabic Example: Arabic root /k t b/ [ jiktib ] ‘he writes’ [ katab ] ‘he wrote’
Tiers The word structure of languages with trilateral roots are sometimes depicted in terms of tiers, rather than with tree diagrams.
4. Circumfixes Circumfixes or discontinuous morphemes are added both before and after the root Below are some examples of circumfixes in Chickasaw, a Muskogean language
CIRCUMFIXES German also has circumfixes or discontinuous morphemes lieb ‘love’ verb root geliebt ‘loved’ or ‘be loved’
CATEGORIES OF MORPHEMES All affixes are, by definition, bound That is, they always occur attached to another morpheme In many languages, most of the roots are bound as well That is, the grammar requires attaching some type of affix to them before they can be uttered as grammatical words In English, most roots are also free morphemes or stand-alone words English has a word-based morphology
BOUND ROOTS IN ENGLISH There are a few so-called bound roots in English They include: ‘ceive’ as in ‘deceive’, ‘receive’, ‘conceive’, ‘perceive’ ‘tract’ as in ‘retract’, ‘detract’, ‘contract’ ‘cest’ as in ‘incest’ ‘pris’ as in ‘reprisal’, ‘enterprise’ ‘gust’ as in ‘disgust’, ‘gustatory’ ‘gusto’
BOUND ROOTS IN ENGLISH or MONOMORPHEMIC WORDS? In every case, these so-called bound roots are attached to recognizable English affixes This leads SOME to the conclusion that they are indeed roots Other linguists consider words such as ‘receive’ to be monomorphemic.
Oddball roots or monomorphemic words? Consider that the meanings of all of the ‘bound’ roots in English are somewhat opaque or unclear to us today Some of these words were borrowed ‘whole’ from Latin or Greek Some roots, such as ‘kempt’ which forms the base in ‘unkempt’, have simply been lost.
Oddball roots or monomorphemic words? But the ‘ceive’ words are special. For example, they have unique ‘cept’ allomorphs as in: ‘receive’ ‘reception’ ‘deceive’‘deception’ So the jury is still out on this issue.
BOUND ROOTS CAN REBOUND Note the ambiguous status of the English bound root ‘cran’ This first morpheme in the compound word ‘cranberry’ has recently been used to form a number of new words including ‘cranapple’ and ‘cranraspberry’ So, is ‘cran’ bound or free? (A compound word is made up of two or more roots.)
FUNCTIONS OF AFFIXES Affixes fulfill two main functions in virtually all languages They are either derivational or inflectional
Derivational - Inflectional Derivational affixes form words that differ from the base in meaning and/or function. Example: ‘un’ reverses the meaning of ‘happy’ Inflectional affixes function to indicate syntactic or semantic relations between words in sentences Example: they may indicate agreements between subject and verb : he eats or noun and adjective : la chica es pequeña ‘the girl is small’
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Each language has obligatory grammatical occasions that must be marked by an appropriate inflection The following English and French examples are ungrammatical because they are missing inflections
* The girl wait at the station yesterday. The girl waited at the station yesterday. * The girl wait at the station every day. The girl waits at the station every day. * Nous mange du chocolat. Nous mangeons du chocolat. * My dog is big than your dog. My dog is bigger than your dog.
Languages may inflect for: gender: male, female or neuter noun class or numeral classifiers number: one, more than one or one, two (or dual), more than two person case tense animacy truth versus hearsay definiteness versus indefiniteness habitualness comparative etc…
INFLECTION Old English had a dual inflection for two of something Below are some examples of Old English pronouns
CASE Case indicates the role of the noun (subject, direct object, etc.) in a sentence Below are some examples of Latin noun case inflections
CASE Below are some examples of Old English noun case inflections In Modern English, the only marked inflectional case for nouns is genitive ‘The boy’s truck’
Modern English Case Modern English pronouns retain some case marking. For example: I saw her (object case). She (subject case) is very tall. I was impressed by her (genitive case) height.
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Modern French inflects verbs for: number person tense, such as: present (‘je mange’) future (‘je mangerai’) imperfect (‘je mangeais’) conditional (‘je mangerais’)
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Some of the person inflections on French verbs have disappeared in the spoken language Example: ‘je mange’ and ‘tu manges’ These two inflections sound identical phonetically [m ž ] ‘mange’ [m ž ] ‘manges’
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Languages with relatively few inflections fulfill the functions expressed by inflections in other ways Example: They use function words such as prepositions (‘of’, ‘by’) and articles (‘the’, ‘a’) They use strict word order in sentences The canonical or most typical word order in English: subject - verb - direct object and indirect object The defenseman passed the puck to the forward. This order is quite strictly adhered to in active declarative sentences, because English has so few inflections
Who-Whom Some linguists consider the ‘m’ on whom to be an inflectional affix. Others treat the who-whom alternation to be part of the pronoun case system (in dialects where it still exists).
The inflectional affixes of English All of the inflections of English happen to be suffixes Inflections can occur in other languages as prefixes, infixes and circumfixes A number of English inflections have alternative pronunciations or ‘allomorphs’ These will be discussed in LIN 1320 under the heading of morphophonology
Stems Some linguists use the term stem instead of base in referring to the form that an inflectional affix is added to. ‘reboot’ + ‘s’ ‘reboot’ is either the base or the stem to which the plural inflection ‘s’ is added.
Other ways of marking inflection Instead of simply adding an affix, some languages employ other devices to inflect roots. These are: Internal change Suppletion Reduplication Tone Placement
Internal Change versus Infixing With internal change, the remaining parts of the morpheme do not recur elsewhere in the language. *‘s-ng’ remains when ‘i’ is replaced by ‘a’ in ‘sing’-‘sang’ in English. *‘s-ng’ is not a morpheme in English In Bontoc, ‘fikas’ ‘strong’ occurs independently in the language, even though it can be ‘invaded’ by the ‘um’ infix to produce ‘fumikas’
Internal Change versus Infixing With internal change, the inserted sounds do not carry specific grammatical meaning elsewhere in the language. However, the infixed ‘a’ vowels that are added to the root ‘k-t-b’ ‘write’ in Arabic are added to many verb stems to form the past. Constant meaning/function [ jiktib ] ‘he writes’ [ katab ] ‘he wrote’
Internal Change versus Infixing In contrast, the ‘a’ that replaces the ‘i’ in internally changed English ‘sing’- ‘sang’ does not function in this manner except in a very few cases. ‘sing’-‘sang’ ‘ring’ – ‘rang’ ?’bring’-’brang’
Lining them up The linear arrangement of morphemes is referred to as concatenative morphology Infixing and internal change are examples of nonconcatenative morphology.
Decisions! Is it internal change or suppletion? For example ‘think’-‘thought’. Some linguists use the term partial suppletion to deal with these cases.
Storage of ‘Irregular Forms’ Morphological rules do not predict: Suppletive forms Forms produced through internal change Thus, these forms must be stored as separate items in the speaker’s mental lexicon.
Reduplication Reduplication involves copying or repeating a specified syllable of the root =partial reduplication or the entire root =full reduplication
Tone Placement In some tone languages, tone changes on the syllable can be used to mark grammatical (i.e. inflectional) contrasts such as tense. Mono-Bili dá ‘spanked’dà ‘will spank’ zí‘ate’zÌ ‘will eat’ ˊ denotes high tone ˋdenotes low tone
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Key Point 1 Inflections never change the fundamental meaning or part of speech of a word Example: ‘dog’ and ‘dogs’ are both nouns ‘strong’, ‘stronger’ and ‘strongest’ are all adjectives
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Key point 2 - Productivity Despite some irregular forms (such as ‘go- went’), one inflection (with possible allomorphs ) will usually fulfill a designated grammatical function in the language. Think about how few exceptions there are to adding some form of the plural affix ‘s’ to nouns. New words in English generally receive the regular inflection.
INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES Key Point 3 Inflections usually occur at the outer margins of words, after the derivational affixes have been added This is because obligatory grammatical occasions are often dictated by sentence structure, after a word has been retrieved with its derivational affixes
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Derivational affixes permit the derivation of new words from existing roots Derivational affixes may alter the meaning and/or the part of the speech of the original root
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES ‘judge’ part of speech: verb meaning: to decide questions of law, to estimate verb root judge + derivational suffix -ment derivation: ‘judgement’ part of speech: noun new meaning: an opinion or fact-based decision
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES verb root act + derivational suffix -er Derivation: ‘actor’ part of speech: noun meaning: performer in a theatrical sense NB: ‘or’ and ‘er’ are alternate spellings of the same morpheme
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES ‘act’ part of speech: verb meaning: perform, produce an effect verb root act + derivational suffix -ive Derivation: ‘active’ part of speech: adjective meaning: energetic, busy
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Deriv. prefix in- + adjective base active Derivation: ‘inactive’ part of speech: adjective meaning: inert, not active, lazy (reverse of active)
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES adjective base active + derivational suffix -ate Derivation: ‘activate’ part of speech: verb meaning: put into service or motion derivational prefix de- + verb base activate Derivation: ‘deactivate’ part of speech: verb meaning: put out of service, render inactive (reverse of ‘activate’)
Derivational Affixes verb base deactivate + deriv. suffix -ion Derivation: ‘deactivation’ part of speech: noun meaning: the act of putting out of service or motion
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES English has a very rich derivational morphology, with many derivational prefixes and suffixes
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES There can be more than one derivational affix in a word Words may seem to be derived in layers The placement and ordering of derivational affixes is dictated by the rules of morphology Thus, ‘usefulness’ but not ‘*usenessful’
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES A processing model accounts for why inflectional affixes appear on the outside boundaries of the word, after all derivational affixes are in place Processing model First derive words before placing them into an utterance Utterance provides obligatory grammatical occasions for inflections
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Overlapping derivational affixes A language may have several derivational affixes that perform the same function This is especially true of English It reflects the extensive borrowing of words from French, Latin and Greek onto the Germanic base of English
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Normally, derivational affixes with overlapping functions are restricted to particular subsets of English roots Example: ‘hood’ ‘neighbour’ ‘neighbourhood’ ‘brother’ → ‘brotherhood’ ‘sister’ ‘sisterhood’ ‘ship’ ‘friend’ → ‘friendship’ ‘kin’ ‘kinship’ Note that ‘*brothership’ and ‘*friendhood’ are not possible forms in English
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Derivational affixes with the same function in English may be limited to particular types of roots Example: the derivational prefix ‘un’ that reverses the meaning of adjectives is more productive with adjectives which themselves are derived from verbs ‘unbelievable’ ‘unacceptable’ ‘unspeakable’ ‘*unsad’ (‘sad’ is an adjective)
RESISTANT ROOTS Some roots seem resistant to derivation with affixes Note the following derivations: noun ‘hospital’ → verb ‘hospitalize’ noun ‘seat’ → verb ‘to seat’ and verb ‘to unseat’ noun ‘chair’ → verb ‘to chair’ (meaning ‘to preside’) But there is no verb *‘chairize’ (meaning to put in a chair). This derivation may be blocked by the existence of the verb ‘to seat’. The verbs ‘to seat’ and ‘to chair’ are examples of zero derivation (or derivation without any affix), which we will discuss later.
PRODUCTIVITY OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Derivational affixes vary in their degree of productivity This is the freedom with which speakers use them to create new words Particularly productive affixes are: ‘able’ that turns verbs into adjectives: ‘acceptable’ and ‘adaptable’ ‘er’ that turns verbs into nouns: ‘reader’ and ‘hunter’
PRODUCTIVITY OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Less productive affixes are: ‘en’ of ‘thicken’ and ‘darken’ ‘th’ of ‘warmth’ but not ‘*thinnen’ and ‘*coolth’ However, ‘coolness’ can be derived with the productive suffix ‘ness’ The derivational prefix ‘de’ is currently quite productive ‘deplane’ ‘defuse’ ‘demystify’ ‘deintensify’ ‘debug’ ‘dethrone’ ‘debunk’
PRODUCTIVITY OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Note the varying degrees of productivity of the following derivational affixes: -ism idealism, realism, sadism but not *nastism -ity sanity, vanity, practicality, scarcity, nicety but not *nastity -ness meanness, goodness, usefulness, nastiness ‘-ness’ is more productive ‘-ity’ is no longer productive ‘-ism’ tends to change the meaning of the root in unexpected ways as in ‘belief systems’
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Models for retrieval Model 1: Individual morphemes that occur in the language are stored as separate entries Retrieve each morpheme in a word and use rules of morphology to assemble each word as you need it
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Model 2: Polymorphemic (complex) words such as ‘unhappiness’ are stored as ready- made wholes in our mental dictionaries However, individual morphemes, such as ‘un-’, are also stored as separate entries, making them available to create new words such as ‘unbirthday’
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Both model 1 and model 2 agree that the individual morphemes are stored separately and are available to create new words This is the crux of morphological theory The models differ on the issue of the storage of whole polymorphemic (complex) words which are ready to use right ‘off the shelf’
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES There is strong evidence for the independent storage of individual morphemes such as ‘ness’ and for the rules that allow them to be combined with other morphemes Turn adjective ‘sprog’ into a noun ‘sprogness’ Pluralize the noun ‘wug’ ‘wugs’
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Sprogness and wugs could not have been stored in your mental dictionaries They must be the product of the application of rules combining the existing morphemes ‘ness’ and ‘s’ with the new roots Of course, this does not preclude the existence of ready-made words such as ‘friendly’ Psycholinguists conduct many experiments to address this issue
PRODUCTIVITY OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Here are some cases where a prefix does not give a very predictable meaning when combined with a particular root These examples provide strong support for the theory that derived words would have to be stored in our lexicons
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Recall the ‘phon’ words from slide 5: phone phonologist allophone phonetic phonological telephone phonetician phonic telephonic phonetics phoneme euphonious phonology phonemic ‘Phon’ seems to refer in some manner to speech
THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MORPHEMES Are related words such as the ‘phon’ words connected in the mental dictionary? If so, how and when does this occur? Is it the same for all speakers? Is ‘holi’ the root of ‘holiday’ connected to the free morpheme ‘holy’ for all speakers? This is another area of study in psycholinguistics
OPEN AND CLOSED CLASS ITEMS IN THE LEXICON Open class items include nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs They carry the main semantic content of utterances and are sometimes called content words or content morphemes Closed class items include pronouns, prepositions, articles, conjunctions and other grammatical or function morphemes Inflectional and derivational affixes are also considered closed class morphemes
OPEN AND CLOSED CLASS ITEMS IN THE LEXICON Open class items far outweigh the number of closed class items Some aphasics (people with language problems due to brain damage) show differential impairment of closed and open class lexical items This supports the view that the two classes are processed differently in the brain
Note that derivational and inflectional affixes are also considered to be part of the closed class of morphemes in a language.
EXPANDING THE LEXICON We expand the lexicon by using the derivational affixes to create new words We can also use other means to expand the lexicon Only the open class of lexical items is regularly expanded The closed class remains relatively stable over time Changes to the closed class can and do occur over the history of a language
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Compounding – combining two or more free, usually open class, morphemes to create a new word The meaning of a compound may not be directly discernible from the meanings of the individual morphemes Examples: ‘redcoat’ ‘hotdog’ ‘flatfoot’ ‘mother-in-law’
Compounding Some compounds consist of or include closed class morphemes ‘into’ ‘onto’ ‘unto’ ‘upon’ ‘mother-in-law’
Compounding English has special stress rules for compounds adjective noun: hot dóg compound noun: hót dog
Compounding In English compounds, the rightmost morpheme or head determines the part of speech of the compound There are many possible combinations of compounds in English For example (heads are in blue): adjective + noun = ‘hotdog’ (noun) noun + verb = steamroll (verb)
Identifying Compounds Stress test Adjective plus noun: hot dóg compound noun: hót dog Inflection test Inflections are normally added at the end of entire compound He dropkicked the ball not: *He droppedkick the ball. Some exceptions relate to semantic issues: mothers-in-law *mother-in-laws
Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds Endocentric: the compound denotes a subtype of the concept denoted by the head ‘fireman’ = type of man Exocentric: the meaning of the compound is not easy to figure out from its parts ‘redneck’ is not a type of neck
Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds English endocentric compounds whose heads have irregular plurals also pluralize irregularly tooth- teeth wisdom tooth – wisdom teeth English exocentric compounds whose heads have irregular plurals use regular plurals leaf – leaves Maple Leafs
Cliticization Clitics: Free morphemes sometimes reduce to forms that are no longer syllables and therefore cannot stand alone But the full free morpheme still exists as well. Clitics bind to a host word Proclitics come before the host. Enclitics come after the host. They are going - They’re going (enclitic) *Je te aime – Je t’aime (proclitic)
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Borrowing from other languages ‘propaganda’ and ‘sputnik’ from Russian ‘junta’ from Spanish ‘coup’ from French Invention transistor television
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Acronyms Laser = light amplified by stimulated emission of radiation NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization Scuba = self-contained underwater breathing apparatus Snafu = situation normal, all f……ed up
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Clipping Abbreviation telly TV OJ VD math TNT DDT bike U.S. ID ‘piano’ from ‘pianoforte’ ‘fan’ from ‘fanatic’ ‘bus’ from ‘omnibus’ ‘a.m.’ from ‘ante mere diem’ ‘p.m.’ from ‘post mere diem’
Acronym versus Abbreviation An abbreviation is pronounced as a series of letters OJ (for orange juice) An acronym is pronounced as a word NATO (for North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Back formation – subtracting what is mistakenly thought to be an affix to create a new word ‘pea’ from ‘pease’ ‘fuse’ from ‘fusion’ ‘to hawk’ from ‘hawker’ ‘to swindle’ from ‘swindler’ ‘to laze’ from ‘lazy’ ‘monokini’ from ‘bikini’ ‘flammable’ from ‘inflammable’
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Blending – combining parts of two or more words to form a new word Examples: ‘brunch’ from ‘breakfast’ and ‘lunch’ ‘motel’ from ‘motor’ and ‘hotel’ ‘smog’ from ‘smoke’ and ‘fog’ ‘chortle’ from ‘chuckle’ and ‘snort’
Zero Derivation Words formed without any obvious derivation or sound change. For example: Conversion Semantic extension Semantic narrowing Semantic reversal Words from brand names Words from proper names Proper names from occupations
Conversion An existing word is assigned a new part of speech ‘run’ (verb) converts to ‘run’ (noun) ‘dirty’ (adjective) converts ‘dirty’ (verb) The two forms co-exist in the language.
Semantic Extension Broadening the meaning of a word Examples: ‘ship’ to ‘spacecraft’ ‘dogge’ from a specific breed to a generic term ‘bread’ to refer to money ‘cool’ to mean someone or something praiseworthy ‘straight’ to refer to a heterosexual person
Semantic Narrowing Narrowing the meaning of a word Examples: ‘hund’ from a generic term for dog to a specific breed (‘hound’) ‘meat’ from a term referring to the edible parts of many items such as nuts, as in ‘nutmeats’ and ‘mincemeat pie’ to a term referring only to animal flesh
Semantic reversal Meaning of a word can change its connotation over time Examples: ‘square’ as in ‘square deal’ or ‘square meal’ in the 1930’s to a dull conventional person or thing in the 1950’s and 60’s ‘straight' an honest person before the 1960’s to someone who was dull and conventional in the 1960’s
Words from brand names kleenex fridgidaire xerox Words from proper names sandwich jumbo denim cesarean
Proper names from occupations Miller Taylor Smith Place names from common words Portsmouth Landsend
Onomatopoeia words formed as imitations of environmental sounds influenced by the sound system of each language English: ‘cock-a-doodle-doo’ Japanese: ‘kokekokko’ French: ‘cocorico’
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Idiom – a fixed phrase whose meaning cannot be inferred from the meanings of the individual words Idioms cannot be syntactically manipulated into questions or passives and still retain their idiomatic meanings Example: the idiom ‘to buy the farm’ does not retain the meaning ‘to die’ in the passive phrase ‘the farm was bought by him’
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY The following idioms all mean ‘to die’ ‘to kick the bucket’ ‘to cash in one’s chips’ ‘to bite the dust’ ‘to buy the farm’ ‘to pass away’ ‘to meet one’s maker’
EXPANDING THE LEXICON WITHOUT DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Other idioms include ‘sell down the river’ meaning ‘to betray’ ‘to let one’s hair down’ meaning ‘to relax’ ‘to put one’s foot in one’s mouth’ meaning ‘to commit a social gaff’ ‘to throw one’s weight around’ meaning ‘to be pushy or bossy’ ‘to wear one’s heart on one’s sleeve’ meaning ‘to reveal one’s (romantic) feelings