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Personality “Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.” Five major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality “Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.” Five major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations."— Presentation transcript:


2 Personality “Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.” Five major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Behavioral - learned dimensions of personality Cognitive – learning & organization of info Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Trait Theory - what traits we possess

3 Psychoanalytic Perspective “first comprehensive theory of personality” (1856-1939) University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate Specialized in Nervous Disorders Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause!

4 Psychoanalytic Perspective “first comprehensive theory of personality” Q: What caused neurological symptoms in patients with no neurological problems? Unconscious Hypnosis Free Association “Psychoanalysis”

5 The Unconscious “the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to unconscious Dreams & Slips

6 Freud & Personality Structure “Personality arises from conflict between aggressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints” Satisfaction without the guilt? Ego Super Ego Id

7 Id/Unconscious If it feels good, do it. Pleasure seeking, amoral, exists at birth and contains all basic biological drives: hunger, thirst, self-preservation and sex. Pleasure Principal – desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for the consequences. Ego Super Ego Id Id = ‘It’ in Latin

8 Ego/Conscious Executive Director More rational, logical and cunning than Id. Reality Principle – the need to satisfy the demands of the Id only in ways that will not lead to negative consequences (if it feels good, do it..but only if you can get away with it) Ego Super Ego Id Ego = ‘I’ in Latin

9 Super Ego/Preconscious Moral watchdog Contains the conscience, part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how acceptable the behavior is. Ego Super Ego Id Super Ego = ‘over the self’ in Latin

10 Freud & Personality Development “personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” “personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim. Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex” (Identification & Gender Identity) Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3

11 Defense Mechanisms Id Super Ego When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is Anxiety Ego protects itself via Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality

12 FOR EACH DEFENSE MECHANISM CREATE AN EXAMPLE OR DRAWING TO REPRESENT AND REMEMBER! Repression banishes certain thoughts/feelings from consciousness (underlies all other defense mechanisms) Regression retreating to earlier stage of fixated development Denial refuse to accept reality Reaction Formation ego makes unacceptable impulses appear as their opposite Defense Mechanisms

13 Projection attributes threatening impulses to others Rationalization generate self-justifying explanations to hide the real reasons for our actions Displacement divert impulses toward a more acceptable object Sublimation transform unacceptable impulse into something socially accepted Defense Mechanisms

14 Practice – Identifying Defense Mechanisms

15 Thematic Apperceptions Test (TAT) Rorschach Inkblot Test The Unconscious & Assessment How can we assess personality? (i.e., the unconscious) Objective Tests? No - tap the conscious Projective Tests? Yes - tap the unconscious

16 Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories Carl Jung’s collective unconscious Alfred Adler’s individual psychology Karen Horney’s focus on security

17 Carl Jung Disciple turned Dissenter More general psychic energy Universality of themes — archetypes Collective unconscious — human collective evolutionary history (archetypes)

18 Alfred Adler Most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority Arises from universal feelings of inferiority that are experienced during childhood Overcompensation may cause superiority complex, in which a person exaggerates their own achievements and importance

19 Karen Horney (HORN-eye) Looked at anxiety related to security and social relationships Basic anxiety — the feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world Moving toward, against, or away from other people

20 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theories the “best of his time” or were they simply incorrect? Current research contradicts many of Freud’s specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Dreams may not be unconscious drives and wishes Slips of the tongue are likely competing “nodes” in memory network

21 Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses Few Objective Observations Few Hypotheses (Freud’s theories based on his recollections & interpretations of patients’ free associations, dreams & slips o’ the tongue) Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits

22 The Humanistic Perspective Maslow’s Self-ActualizingPerson Roger’s Person-CenteredPerspective “Healthy” rather than “Sick” Individual as greater than the sum of test scores

23 Maslow & Self-Actualization Physiological Safety Love Needs Esteem Self-Actualization the process of fufilling our potential Studied healthy, creative people Abe Lincoln, Tom Jefferson & Eleanor Roosevelt Self-Aware & Self-Accepting Open & Spontaneous Loving & Caring Problem-Centered not Self-Centered

24 Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective People are basically good with actualizing tendencies. Given the right environmental conditions, we will develop to our full potentials Genuineness, Acceptance, Empathy Self Concept Self Concept - central feature of personality (+ or -)

25 Assessing & Evaluating the Self ? Primarily through questionnaires in which people report their self-concept. ? Also by understanding others’ subjective personal experiences during therapy X Concepts are vague & subjective. Assumptions are naïvely optimistic.

26 Maslow at Work Today suring_what_makes_life_worthwhile.html suring_what_makes_life_worthwhile.html Watch the following ‘ted talk’ and respond

27 Trait Perspective No hidden personality dynamics… just basic personality dimensions Traits - people’s characteristic behaviors & conscious motives

28 Types? How do we describe & classify different personalities? (Type A vs Type B, Granny Smith, MacIntosh, Golden Delicious ?) Ancient Greeks – 4 Types Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - classify people based upon responses to 126 questions

29 Traits? What trait “dimensions” describe personality? How do we describe & classify different personalities? (apples…large, small, green, red) 18,000 recognized TRAITS

30 Are There “Basic” Traits? What trait “dimensions” describe personality? Combination of 2 or 3 genetically determined dimensions Expanded set of factors “The Big 5” Extraversion/Introversion Emotional Stability/Instability

31 The Big Five Emotional Stability Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Calm/Anxious Secure/Insecure Sociable/Retiring Fun Loving/Sober Imaginative/Practical Independent/Conforming Soft-Hearted/Ruthless Trusting/Suspicious Organized/Disorganized Careful/Careless

32 Assessing Traits How can we assess traits? (aim to simplify a person’s behavior patterns) Personality Inventories MMPI most widely used personality inventory assess psychological disorders (not normal traits) empirically derived - test items selected based upon how well they discriminate twixt groups of traits

33 Can your career be determined? Read the argument, answer the questions

34 Social-Cognitive Perspective Bandura Behavior learned through conditioning & observation What we think about our situation affects our behavior Interaction of Environment & Intellect

35 Reciprocal Determinism Personal/Cognitive Factors Personalities shape how we interpret and react Behavior Personalities create situations to which we react EnvironmentFactors People choose different environments Internal World + External World = Us

36 Personal Control Internal Locus of Control You pretty much control your own destiny External Locus of Control Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny Methods of Study Correlate feelings of control with behavior Correlate feelings of control with behavior Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of control and noting effects

37 Outcomes of Personal Control Learned Helplessness Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior Important Issue Nursing Homes Prisons Colleges

38 FRQ

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