2MotivationMotivation is the state of drive or arousal that impels behavior toward a goal-object.A drive (motive) is an internal state of tension that produces actions purported to reduce the tension.A goal-object is something in the external world whose acquisition will reduce the tension.Motivational Theories:Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMcGuire’s Motive Classification
3A Model of the Motivation Process Drive/Arousal: Cognitive Autonomic EmotiveOutcome: Experience of new state SatisfactionIdentification of goal-directed behaviorBehavior: Approach or Avoidance
4Maslow’s HierarchyAccording to psychologist Abraham Maslow, human needs and wants are arranged in a hierarchy.Higher level needs remain dormant until lower level needs are satisfied.Though Maslow does not distinguish between needs and wants, marketers do. According to marketers, only the first two needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are “needs,” while the remaining three are “wants.”
5Maslow’s Hierarchy Advanced Basic5. Self-actualization: This involves the desire for self- fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming.4. Esteem: Desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem needs. These needs relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment.3. Belongingness: Belongingness motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance.2. Safety: Feeling physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth are manifestations of safety needs. They are aroused after physiological motives are minimally satisfied, and before other motives.1. Physiological: Food, water, sleep, and to a limited extent, sex, are physiological motives. Unless they are minimally satisfied, other motives are not activated.The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
6McGuire’s Classification System Need for ConsistencyNeed to Attribute CausationNeed to CategorizeNeed for CuesNeed for IndependenceNeed for NoveltyNeed for Self-ExpressionNeed for Ego-DefenseNeed for AssertionNeed for ReinforcementNeed for AffiliationNeed for Modeling
7Purchase MotivesManifest motives are those that are known and acknowledged.Latent motives are those that are either unknown to the customer or ones that the customer are reluctant to acknowledge.Researching latent motives often requires use of projective techniques.
8Latent and Manifest Motives In a Purchase Situation A large car is more comfortableIt’s a high-quality car that performs wellA number of my friends drive a CadillacIt will demonstrate that I’m successfulIt’s a powerful, sexy car and it will help make me powerful and sexyPurchase aCadillacThe linkage between behavior and motives that are known and freely admittedThe linkage between behavior and motives that are either unknown or are such that the consumer is reluctant to admit or reveal themThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
9Projective Technique Example What do you think of the new software that the company installed?I haven’t used it much yet, but...
10Projective Technique Example Someone who drinks hot tea is ______________.Tea is good to drink when __________________.Making hot tea is _________________________.My friends think tea is _____________________.
11Projective Technique Example Results of a word association test with alternative brand names for a new fruit-flavored sparkling water drink included the following:Possible Brand Name Associated WordsOrmango Green, tart, jungleTropical Fruit Juice, sweet, islandOrange Sparkle Light, bubbly, coolParadise Passion Fruity, thick, heavy
12Benefit Chain Technique The benefit chain or laddering technique (based on Means-End Theory) seeks a deeper understanding of how product attributes are associated with personal beliefs and goals.Thus, it provides insights into why the customer thinks various benefits are important.Knowing why customers care about certain attributes may suggest the kinds of quality improvements that will be most meaningful to customers.
13Benefit Chain ExampleHere is a typical chain or ladder obtained from a secretary discussing why she would prefer to use an overnight package delivery service that has drop boxes available:Drop BoxConvenientSave TimeCan Do MorePersonal SatisfactionAccomplishmentSelf-Esteem
14PersonalityPersonality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations.A consistent repeated pattern of behavior is what constitutes personality.Personality theories can be categorized as either individual or social learning theories, however, many people believe that a combination of both individual characteristics (genetics) and social learning (environment) impact personality.
15Cattell’s Personality Traits* Reserved: detached, critical, aloof, stiffAffected by feeling: emotionally less stableHumble: stable, mild, easily led, docile, accommodatingSober: taciturn, seriousExpedient: disregards rulesShy: timid, threat-sensitiveTough-minded: self-reliant, realisticPractical: down-to-earthversusOutgoing: warmhearted, easygoing, participatingEmotionally stable: mature, faces reality, calmAssertive: aggressive, competitive, stubbornHappy-go-lucky: enthusiasticConscientious: persistent, moralistic, staidVenturesome: uninhibited, socially boldTender-minded: sensitive, clinging, overprotectedImaginative: bohemian, absentminded* The source trait is in italicsSource: Adapted from R. B. Cattel, H. W. Eber, and M. M. Tasuoka, Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1970), pp Reprinted by permission of the copyright owner. All rights reserved.The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
16Cattell’s Personality Traits* Forthright: unpretentious, genuine, but socially clumsySelf-assured: placid, secure, complacent, sereneConservative: respecting traditional ideas, conservatism of temperamentGroup dependent: a joiner and sound followerUndisciplined: lax, follows own urges, careless of social rulesRelaxed: tranquil, torpid, unfrustrated, composedversusAstute: polished, socially awareApprehensive: self-reproaching, insecure, worrying, troubledExperimenting: liberal, freethinking, radicalismSelf-sufficient: resourceful, prefers own decisionsControlled: exacting will-power, socially precise, compulsive, following self-imageTense: frustrated, driven, overwrought* The source trait is in italicsSource: Adapted from R. B. Cattell, H. W. Eber, and M. M. Tasuoka, Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1970), pp Reprinted by permission of the copyright owner. All rights reserved.The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
17EmotionsEmotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behavior.Emotions can be triggered by our environment or by internal processes such as imagery.Emotions are accompanied by physiological changes.We interpret emotions based on cognitive thoughts, emotions (specific feelings), behaviors, and affective (like/dislike) responses.
18Nature of Emotions Specific feelings Environmental event Affect Physiological changesInterpreted as emotions based on situationAffectMental imageryBehaviorsThoughtsThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
22A person who is prone to headaches or allergies could bear the discomfort stoically, shunning early medication, or he could show hypochondriac tendencies and seek intense medication at the earliest onset of symptoms. This illustrates the impact of ___ on consumer behavior.motivationpersonalityculturememoryperception
23Products such as greeting cards, flowers and other kinds of gifts that are bought specifically to promote relationships appear to address which of the “needs” or motives as classified by Maslow?physiologicalsafetybelongingnessesteemself-actualization