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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Chapter 10 Motivation, Personality, and Emotion.

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1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Chapter 10 Motivation, Personality, and Emotion

2 Irwin/McGraw-Hill MotivationMotivation Motivation is the state of drive or arousal that impels behavior toward a goal-object. A drive (motive) is an internal state of tension that produces actions purported to reduce the tension. A goal-object is something in the external world whose acquisition will reduce the tension. Motivational Theories:  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  McGuire’s Motive Classification

3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill A Model of the Motivation Process Drive/Arousal: Cognitive Autonomic Emotive Behavior: Approach or Avoidance Identification of goal- directed behavior Outcome: Experience of new state Satisfaction

4 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Maslow’s Hierarchy According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, human needs and wants are arranged in a hierarchy. Higher level needs remain dormant until lower level needs are satisfied. Though Maslow does not distinguish between needs and wants, marketers do. According to marketers, only the first two needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are “needs,” while the remaining three are “wants.”

5 Irwin/McGraw-Hill 5.Self-actualization: This involves the desire for self- fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming. 4.Esteem: Desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem needs. These needs relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. 3.Belongingness: Belongingness motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance. 2.Safety: Feeling physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth are manifestations of safety needs. They are aroused after physiological motives are minimally satisfied, and before other motives. 1.Physiological: Food, water, sleep, and to a limited extent, sex, are physiological motives. Unless they are minimally satisfied, other motives are not activated. Maslow’s Hierarchy © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Advanced Basic

6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill McGuire’s Classification System Need for Consistency Need to Attribute Causation Need to Categorize Need for Cues Need for Independence Need for Novelty Need for Self- Expression Need for Ego-Defense Need for Assertion Need for Reinforcement Need for Affiliation Need for Modeling

7 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Purchase Motives Manifest motives are those that are known and acknowledged. Latent motives are those that are either unknown to the customer or ones that the customer are reluctant to acknowledge. Researching latent motives often requires use of projective techniques.

8 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Latent and Manifest Motives In a Purchase Situation © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 A large car is more comfortable It’s a high-quality car that performs well A number of my friends drive a Cadillac It will demonstrate that I’m successful It’s a powerful, sexy car and it will help make me powerful and sexy Purchase a Cadillac The linkage between behavior and motives that are known and freely admitted The linkage between behavior and motives that are either unknown or are such that the consumer is reluctant to admit or reveal them

9 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Projective Technique Example What do you think of the new software that the company installed? I haven’t used it much yet, but...

10 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Someone who drinks hot tea is ______________. Tea is good to drink when __________________. Making hot tea is _________________________. My friends think tea is _____________________. Projective Technique Example

11 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Results of a word association test with alternative brand names for a new fruit-flavored sparkling water drink included the following: Possible Brand Name Associated Words Ormango Green, tart, jungle Tropical Fruit Juice, sweet, island Orange Sparkle Light, bubbly, cool Paradise Passion Fruity, thick, heavy Projective Technique Example

12 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Benefit Chain Technique The benefit chain or laddering technique (based on Means-End Theory) seeks a deeper understanding of how product attributes are associated with personal beliefs and goals. Thus, it provides insights into why the customer thinks various benefits are important. Knowing why customers care about certain attributes may suggest the kinds of quality improvements that will be most meaningful to customers.

13 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Benefit Chain Example Here is a typical chain or ladder obtained from a secretary discussing why she would prefer to use an overnight package delivery service that has drop boxes available: Drop Box Convenient Save Time Can Do More Personal Satisfaction Accomplishment Self-Esteem

14 Irwin/McGraw-Hill PersonalityPersonality Personality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. A consistent repeated pattern of behavior is what constitutes personality. Personality theories can be categorized as either individual or social learning theories, however, many people believe that a combination of both individual characteristics (genetics) and social learning (environment) impact personality.

15 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cattell’s Personality Traits* Reserved: detached, critical, aloof, stiff Affected by feeling: emotionally less stable Humble: stable, mild, easily led, docile, accommodating Sober: taciturn, serious Expedient: disregards rules Shy: timid, threat-sensitive Tough-minded: self-reliant, realistic Practical: down-to-earth Outgoing: warmhearted, easygoing, participating Emotionally stable: mature, faces reality, calm Assertive: aggressive, competitive, stubborn Happy-go-lucky: enthusiastic Conscientious: persistent, moralistic, staid Venturesome: uninhibited, socially bold Tender-minded: sensitive, clinging, overprotected Imaginative: bohemian, absentminded versus * The source trait is in italics Source: Adapted from R. B. Cattel, H. W. Eber, and M. M. Tasuoka, Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1970), pp Reprinted by permission of the copyright owner. All rights reserved. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

16 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cattell’s Personality Traits* © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Forthright: unpretentious, genuine, but socially clumsy Self-assured: placid, secure, complacent, serene Conservative: respecting traditional ideas, conservatism of temperament Group dependent: a joiner and sound follower Undisciplined: lax, follows own urges, careless of social rules Relaxed: tranquil, torpid, unfrustrated, composed Astute: polished, socially aware Apprehensive: self-reproaching, insecure, worrying, troubled Experimenting: liberal, freethinking, radicalism Self-sufficient: resourceful, prefers own decisions Controlled: exacting will-power, socially precise, compulsive, following self-image Tense: frustrated, driven, overwrought versus * The source trait is in italics Source: Adapted from R. B. Cattell, H. W. Eber, and M. M. Tasuoka, Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1970), pp Reprinted by permission of the copyright owner. All rights reserved.

17 Irwin/McGraw-Hill EmotionsEmotions Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behavior. Emotions can be triggered by our environment or by internal processes such as imagery. Emotions are accompanied by physiological changes. We interpret emotions based on cognitive thoughts, emotions (specific feelings), behaviors, and affective (like/dislike) responses.

18 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Nature of Emotions © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Interpreted as emotions based on situation Physiological changes Thoughts Behaviors Affect Specific feelings Mental imagery Environmental event

19 Irwin/McGraw-Hill DimensionEmotionIndicator/Feeling Pleasure DutyMoral, virtuous, dutiful FaithReverent, worshipful, spiritual PrideProud, superior, worthy AffectionLoving, affectionate, friendly InnocenceInnocent, pure, blameless GratitudeGrateful, thankful, appreciative SerenityRestful, serene, comfortable, soothed DesireDesirous, wishful, craving, hopeful JoyJoyful, happy, delighted CompetenceConfident, in control, competent Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.

20 Irwin/McGraw-Hill DimensionEmotionIndicator/Feeling Arousal InterestAttentive, curious HypoactivationBored, drowsy, sluggish ActivationAroused, active, excited SurpriseSurprised, annoyed, astonished Déjà vuUnimpressed, uninformed,,unexcited InvolvementInvolved, informed, enlightened, benefited DistractionDistracted, preoccupied, inattentive SurgencyPlayful, entertained, lighthearted ContemptScornful, contemptuous, disdainful Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.

21 Irwin/McGraw-Hill DimensionEmotionIndicator/Feeling Dominance ConflictTense, frustrated, conflictful GuiltGuilty, remorseful, regretful HelplessnessPowerless, helpless, dominated SadnessSad, distressed, sorrowful, dejected FearFearful, afraid, anxious ShameAshamed, embarrassed, humiliated AngerAngry, initiated, enraged, mad HyperactivationPanicked, confused, overstimulated DisgustDisgusted, revolted, annoyed, full of loathing SkepticismSkeptical, suspicious, distrustful Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago.

22 Irwin/McGraw-Hill A person who is prone to headaches or allergies could bear the discomfort stoically, shunning early medication, or he could show hypochondriac tendencies and seek intense medication at the earliest onset of symptoms. This illustrates the impact of ___ on consumer behavior. motivation personality culture memory perception

23 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Products such as greeting cards, flowers and other kinds of gifts that are bought specifically to promote relationships appear to address which of the “needs” or motives as classified by Maslow? physiological safety belongingness esteem self-actualization


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