Presentation on theme: "Irwin/McGraw-Hill Chapter 10 Motivation, Personality, and Emotion."— Presentation transcript:
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Chapter 10 Motivation, Personality, and Emotion
Irwin/McGraw-Hill MotivationMotivation Motivation is the state of drive or arousal that impels behavior toward a goal-object. A drive (motive) is an internal state of tension that produces actions purported to reduce the tension. A goal-object is something in the external world whose acquisition will reduce the tension. Motivational Theories: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGuire’s Motive Classification
Irwin/McGraw-Hill A Model of the Motivation Process Drive/Arousal: Cognitive Autonomic Emotive Behavior: Approach or Avoidance Identification of goal- directed behavior Outcome: Experience of new state Satisfaction
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Maslow’s Hierarchy According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, human needs and wants are arranged in a hierarchy. Higher level needs remain dormant until lower level needs are satisfied. Though Maslow does not distinguish between needs and wants, marketers do. According to marketers, only the first two needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are “needs,” while the remaining three are “wants.”
Irwin/McGraw-Hill McGuire’s Classification System Need for Consistency Need to Attribute Causation Need to Categorize Need for Cues Need for Independence Need for Novelty Need for Self- Expression Need for Ego-Defense Need for Assertion Need for Reinforcement Need for Affiliation Need for Modeling
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Purchase Motives Manifest motives are those that are known and acknowledged. Latent motives are those that are either unknown to the customer or ones that the customer are reluctant to acknowledge. Researching latent motives often requires use of projective techniques.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Projective Technique Example What do you think of the new software that the company installed? I haven’t used it much yet, but...
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Someone who drinks hot tea is ______________. Tea is good to drink when __________________. Making hot tea is _________________________. My friends think tea is _____________________. Projective Technique Example
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Results of a word association test with alternative brand names for a new fruit-flavored sparkling water drink included the following: Possible Brand Name Associated Words Ormango Green, tart, jungle Tropical Fruit Juice, sweet, island Orange Sparkle Light, bubbly, cool Paradise Passion Fruity, thick, heavy Projective Technique Example
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Benefit Chain Technique The benefit chain or laddering technique (based on Means-End Theory) seeks a deeper understanding of how product attributes are associated with personal beliefs and goals. Thus, it provides insights into why the customer thinks various benefits are important. Knowing why customers care about certain attributes may suggest the kinds of quality improvements that will be most meaningful to customers.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Benefit Chain Example Here is a typical chain or ladder obtained from a secretary discussing why she would prefer to use an overnight package delivery service that has drop boxes available: Drop Box Convenient Save Time Can Do More Personal Satisfaction Accomplishment Self-Esteem
Irwin/McGraw-Hill PersonalityPersonality Personality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. A consistent repeated pattern of behavior is what constitutes personality. Personality theories can be categorized as either individual or social learning theories, however, many people believe that a combination of both individual characteristics (genetics) and social learning (environment) impact personality.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill EmotionsEmotions Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behavior. Emotions can be triggered by our environment or by internal processes such as imagery. Emotions are accompanied by physiological changes. We interpret emotions based on cognitive thoughts, emotions (specific feelings), behaviors, and affective (like/dislike) responses.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill A person who is prone to headaches or allergies could bear the discomfort stoically, shunning early medication, or he could show hypochondriac tendencies and seek intense medication at the earliest onset of symptoms. This illustrates the impact of ___ on consumer behavior. motivation personality culture memory perception
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Products such as greeting cards, flowers and other kinds of gifts that are bought specifically to promote relationships appear to address which of the “needs” or motives as classified by Maslow? physiological safety belongingness esteem self-actualization