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All rights reserved. Duplication, distribution, adaptation is strictly prohibited without prior permission. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "All rights reserved. Duplication, distribution, adaptation is strictly prohibited without prior permission. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 All rights reserved. Duplication, distribution, adaptation is strictly prohibited without prior permission. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Facilitating Processes in Disaster & Crisis Intervention Building Community Resilience and Self-Reliance Workshop created by Gilbert Brenson-Lazan

2 2 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006

3 3 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 “Any given problem can be a justification for some and a challenge for others: take your choice.” Anonymous

4 4 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Workshop Objectives Identify the relationship between change, crisis and disaster. Use the GFSC grief process model for assisting people affected by a crisis, change or disaster. Explore facilitation and resilience-building techniques that can be applied to psychosocial reconstruction. Develop specific strategies to take care of ourselves and other caregivers and develop appropriate strategies to use as we assist others in their recuperation. Develop curriculum and intervention strategies to use in communities impacted by natural or man- made disasters for psycho-social recuperation.

5 5 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Agenda for Day One Crisis and change Grief process and its management Facilitation skills Project/curriculum development

6 6 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Crisis In oriental thinking, crisis is the composite of “danger” and “opportunity”

7 7 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Crisis... normal, natural and necessary aspect of human life present in every change and transition in life

8 8 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Crisis and Change Any change can create a crisis  Small Change = Minor Crisis  Big Change = Major Crisis

9 9 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 OPPORTUNITY TRAUMATIC EVENT PSYCHOSOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION INITIAL REACTIONS DENIAL SECONDARY CRISIS The Process Of Crisis DANGER

10 10 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 A Traumatic Event Share your experience in the traumatic event when it had just happened.

11 11 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Existence Significance Options Resources TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL Recovery Process

12 12 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Denial We tend to deny:  the existence of a problem  the significance of the problem  the options available to change  that resources or people can help This is a normal reaction that helps prepare us for facing reality. No!

13 13 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Existence Significance Options Resources TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL Physical Psychological Social Spiritual  INITIAL REACTIONS Recovery Process

14 14 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Initial Reactions We react in every dimension of our being: Physical Mental/ Emotional SocialSpiritual

15 15 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Physical Reactions Somatic reactions Alteration of sleep patterns Alteration of eating habits Changes in appearance

16 16 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Emotional & Psychological Reactions Nervousness Energy level (animation) extremes Perceptual distortion Inappropriate use of money and objects Loss of desire to live Heightened emotional susceptibility

17 17 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Emotional & Psychological Reactions Sadness A deep and recurring sense of loss during a sometimes long period of time. Crying is normal, natural and even necessary in an intense period of sadness. Of another crisis Of not being able to survive Of financial loss Of the consequences of these on others Fear Different kinds of fear appear and reappear:

18 18 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Emotional & Psychological Reactions Guilt or Self Blame Many feel guilty for something they did. Others feel guilty for what they think they failed to do. Some people even blame themselves in some way for natural tragedies. Nature Government Family Friends Volunteers & Aid Workers Even at God! Anger Illogical as it may be, it is also normal and natural to feel anger, even rage at:

19 19 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Social Reactions Group and interpersonal relationships also feel the impact of a crisis. There can be a tendency toward isolation or the other extreme, permanent attachment. Relational Stress most often seen in individual behaviors  Aggressive  Passive

20 20 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Spiritual Reactions Increase in magical or mystical thinking Spiritual rejection, distortion or fanaticism

21 21 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 “The road to successful change requires a patient compassion for the pain and fear of all those involved.” Thomas Merton

22 22 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl “ Everything can be taken from a person except one thing: the freedom to choose a specific attitude when faced by a crisis.”

23 23 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Coping Strategies Opportunity Use of effective strategies Danger Use of ineffective strategies

24 24 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Recovery Process: Needs, Stages, Leadership Styles INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES Recovery Stage: Leadership Style:

25 25 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Ineffective Strategies: Pseudosolutions Pseudosolution (Watzlawick, 1984) What we do, with the best of intentions, when we try to solve a problem and end up making it worse. Like drinking salt water to satisfy a thirst.

26 26 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Agitate: Get Away Avoid thinking about my reality by continued isolation or excessive social stimulation. Avoid reality by abusing psychiatric, recreational or alcoholic drugs. Dysfunctional strategy to meet survival needs.

27 27 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Agitate: Get Away Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Recovery Process: Ineffective Strategies Recovery Stage: Leadership Style:

28 28 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Abdicate: Get Helpless Refusing to accept responsibility for my thoughts, feelings and actions. Dysfunctional strategy to meet security needs.

29 29 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Agitate: Get Away Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Recovery Process: Ineffective Strategies Abdicate: Get Helpless

30 30 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Automate: Get Stuck The lack of interest or flexibility to change my unproductive behaviors, struggle against something that can’t be changed, etc. Dysfunctional strategy to meet security and some autonomy needs.

31 31 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Agitate: Get Away Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Abdicate: Get Helpless Recovery Process: Ineffective Strategies Automate: Get Stuck

32 32 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Alienate: Get Control Excessive priority given to my own interests at the cost of those of others. Dysfunctional strategy to meet security and some autonomy needs.

33 33 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Agitate: Get Away Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Recovery Process: Ineffective Strategies Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis

34 34 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Secondary Crisis Frequently choosing dysfunctional strategies to cope with initial reactions can rapidly become a personal and social pathology.

35 35 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Secondary Crisis Risk Factors A delay in the start of the grieving process. A previous ambivalent relationship with the deceased or the lost possessions. A lack of preparedness for the loss, both in the mental and material sense. An absence of moral and spiritual values. Traumatic anxiety at the same time of the loss. Excessive dependency on the deceased. Difficulty in tolerating or expressing emotions. Previously unresolved losses The death of a key figure during childhood Depression or other psychological problems.

36 36 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Manifestations of A Secondary Crisis Permanent Hyperactivity Extended Periods of Apathy Excessive Identification Chronic Psychosomatic Disorder Relational Crisis Drug/alcohol Dependency Aggression or Suicide Attempts Psychotic Depression

37 37 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 New Learning Model Jacques DeLors 1999 New skills and ways to live New skills and ways to live Living and workingtogether workingtogether Develop as a person Group-based, experientialGroup-based,experiential Learn to

38 38 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Ladder of Needs Effective strategies meet our needs in ways that help us grow and learn. Survival Security Autonomy Transcendence Reactive Receptive Proactive Interactive Directive Coordinating Monitoring Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style:

39 39 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Recovery Process: Effective Strategies N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Accommodate: Come Through Agitate: Get Away Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence

40 40 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Intervention Strategies RECOVERY STAGE & BASIC NEED EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ACTIVITIESSKILLS NEEDED Reactive stage to meet Survival needs Accommodate/ Come Through Awareness about the new reality and its impact. Necessary to begin a catharsis, releasing the emotions related to the grief. Necessary for adapting to the new situation of survival. Physical Mental Social Spiritual Survival

41 41 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Recovery Process: Effective Strategies N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Accommodate: Come Through Agitate: Get Away Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Assimilate: Come Along

42 42 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Intervention Strategies RECOVERY STAGE & BASIC NEED EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ACTIVITIESSKILLS NEEDED Receptive stage to meet Security needs Assimilate/ Come Along Identify, understand and admit personal reactions to the crisis as something normal, natural and necessary for healing and growth. Necessary to understand the implications, explore new options and recognize the positive aspects of the negative event. Accept the new reality with awareness persistence reflection compliance analysis observation flexibility adaptation, etc.

43 43 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Recovery Process: Effective Strategies N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Accommodate: Come Through Agitate: Get Away Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Assimilate: Come Along Activate: Come Forward

44 44 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Intervention Strategies RECOVERY STAGE & BASIC NEED EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ACTIVITIESSKILLS NEEDED Proactive stage to meet Autonomy needs Activate/ Come Forward Remember, use and actively develop all one’s inner and external resources (those from before the tragedy, presently and those that will continue despite the tragedy. Necessary to: achieve personal growth. implement plans introduce new alternatives. Participate in one’s own growth by doing, becoming, assertiveness, validation, authenticity, personal mission, empowerment, achievement, creativity, accountability, etc.

45 45 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Recovery Process: Effective Strategies N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Accommodate: Come Through Agitate: Get Away Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Recovery Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence Assimilate: Come Along Activate: Come Forward Associate: Come Together PsychosocialReconstruction

46 46 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Intervention Strategies RECOVERY STAGE & BASIC NEED EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ACTIVITIESSKILLS NEEDED Interactive stage to meet Transcendence needs Associate/ Come Together Contribute, cooperate, collaborate and co- create with others so that together the problem can be converted into an opportunity for personal and group growth. Strengthen social bonds and intimacy through affiliation sharing advocacy solidarity alliances win-win cooperation, etc.

47 47 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Coping Strategies Discussion Identify approaches for helping disaster survivors recognize that their behavior is dysfunctional and how to create the opportunity to discuss other, more functional behaviors in the situation.

48 48 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Summary of Functional Strategies NEED & BEHAVIORAL STAGE FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES & LEADERSHIP STYLE ACTIVITIESSKILLS Stage: Reactive Need: Survival Functional: Accommodate/ Come Through Leadership: Directive Create awareness about the new reality and its impact. Initiate a catharsis of the emotions related to the grief so that the person adapts to the new situation of survival. Survival Skills: Physical Mental Social Spiritual Stage: Receptive Need: Security Functional: Assimilate/ Come Along Leadership: Coordinating Identify, understand and accept personal reactions to the crisis as something normal, natural and necessary for healing and growth. Necessary for understanding the implications, exploring new options and recognizing the positive aspects of the negative event. Accept the new reality with awareness, observation, reflection, analysis, compliance, flexibility, adaptation, persistence, etc. Stage: Proactive Need: Autonomy Functional: Activate/ Come Forward Leadership: Monitoring Remember, use and actively develop all the internal and external resources that one has, had in the past and will continue to have despite the tragedy Necessary to achieve personal growth, implement plans and introduce new alternatives. Participate in one’s own growth by: doing, becoming, assertiveness, validation, authenticity, empowerment, personal mission, achievement, creativity, accountability, etc. Stage: Interactive Need: Transcendence Functional: Associate/ Come Together Leadership: Consulting Contribute, cooperate, collaborate and co-create with others so that together the problem can be converted into an opportunity for personal and group growth. Strengthen social bonds and intimacy through: affiliation, sharing, advocacy, solidarity, alliances, win-win, cooperation, etc.

49 49 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Summary of Strategies PRINCIPAL PERCEIVED NEED & BEHAVIORAL STAGE FUNCTIONAL PROCESS FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES DYS- FUNCTIONAL PROCESS PSEUDO- SOLUTIONS LEADERSHIP INTERVENTIONS STYLE & GOALS Need: SURVIVAL Behavior: REACTIVE Accommodate : Come Through Self-Protection: denial or discounting (of existence, significance or options) and initial systemic reactions Abdicate: Get Away Escape: suicide attempts, hallucination, prolonged denial, desperation, psychotic depression Directive: Organize a structure that facilitates physical, psychological and social survival. Need: SECURITY Behavior: RECEPTIVE Assimilate: Come Along Adaptive Learning: reflection, grief management, persistence, compliance Attenuate: Get Helpless Passive- Dependence: co-dependency, clinical depression, substance abuse, isolation, pseudo- catharsis Coordinating: Facilitate awareness and new competencies through training and workshops. Need: AUTONOMY Behavior: PROACTIVE Activate: Come Forward Personal Growth: flexibility, optimism, assertiveness, creativity, leadership, authenticity, empowerment, accountability Automate: Get Stuck Inflexibility: overvaluing of the past or of the status quo, obstinacy, rigidity, manipulation, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, sociopathic behaviors Monitoring: Facilitate individual and group self- development and achievement. Need: TRANSCENDENCE Behavior: INTERACTIVE Associate: Come Together Solidarity: affiliation, synergy, advocacy, win-win, cooperation, group consensus, teamwork Alienate: Get Control Domination: Excessive individualism, aggressiveness, competitiveness, win- lose, need for control, power struggle Consulting: Facilitate consensus and mentor processes of interpersonal and group synergy. OPPORTUNITY DANGER

50 50 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Recovery Process N E E D S Existence Significance Options Resources Accommodate: Come Through Assimilate: Come Along Activate: Come Forward Associate: Come Together Agitate: Get Away Abdicate: Get Helpless Automate: Get Stuck Alienate: Get Control Secondary Crisis Reactive Directive Receptive Coordinating Proactive Monitoring Interactive Consulting Behavioral Stage: Leadership Style: TRAUMATIC EVENT DENIAL  INITIAL REACTIONS Physical Psychological Social Spiritual EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES PsychosocialReconstruction SurvivalSecurityAutonomyTranscendence

51 51 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Crisis Intervention Techniques

52 52 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Crisis Intervention Techniques Creating Interpersonal and Group Rapport Linguistic Empowerment and Language of Suggestion Catharsis Facilitation Critical Incident Debriefing and Focused Conversation Suicide Risk and Referral Criteria Building Group Resilience Developing Transitional Communities Avoiding Conflict Escalation Caring for the Caregivers and Developing Personal Resilience Caring for the Caregivers and Developing Personal Resilience

53 53 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Creating Interpersonal & Group Rapport Active Listening Reframe Attitudes Pacing Use Adequate Recognition

54 54 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Rapport and Communication Listen in such a way that others want to talk to you. Talk in such a way that others want to listen to you. Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

55 55 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Linguistic Empowerment The use of linguistic structures which facilitate recollection of meanings and increase our and other people’s options. Critical for the development of personal, group and community potential.

56 56 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © C’s of Linguistic Empowerment Correspondence Capacity Clarity Coherence

57 57 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Correspondence: Identify Responsibilities Not Empowered: July’s goal has been met! Empowered: The Region Five salesmen met the goal for July! N: Maria makes me feel guilty when I am late. E: I feel guilty when Maria complains for me being late.

58 58 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Capacity: Recognize Options N: I have to see Juan at 3:00. E: I am going to see Juan at 3:00. N: I cannot talk to you now. E: I'd rather not commit myself in talking to you now. Can we talk this afternoon?

59 59 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Clarity: Agreed Meanings N: Can you give me that “whatchamacallit” over there? E: Can you hand me the tape recorder that is in the left drawer, please? N: She is always “dissing” someone, showing no respect! E: I don’t like how she responds to the customers!

60 60 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Coherence: Consistent Messages N: I want to sell more but competition is tough. E: I want to sell more in spite of the tough competition. N: Don’t you think it would be better to do this tomorrow? E: I think it is better to do this tomorrow. What do you think?

61 61 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Internal Empowerment I can change the way I talk and think! Example: N: The noise in here does not let me work. E: I lose my concentration when there is so much noise.

62 62 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Dialogic Empowerment Tracking Clarify empowered words by asking for specific information. Paraphrasing In your own words, restate what you understood, in an empowered way.

63 63 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Tracking Ask specific questions to clarify  Who?  What?  Where?  When?  Why?  How? Nobody helps in this office.  Specifically, how would you like us to help you? The interview went well.  What results did you get? Examples:

64 64 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Paraphrasing Restate in your own words, and in an empowered form, what you understood. Do you mean that… is that right?” Wow, she really is listening. I think she’s taking me seriously.

65 65 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Dialogic Empowerment Recommendations Internally empower ourselves first; otherwise, others perceive our incongruity and we lose credibility. While external empowering techniques are excellent work tools, their use can generate problems in some interpersonal relationships (family, couple, etc.).

66 66 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Language of Suggestion Linguistic Presupposition Implicit Question Implanted Suggestion

67 67 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Linguistic Presupposition Examples: Up to what extent do you feel….?” vs.Do you feel guilty?” What’s your hope….?”vs.Do you have hope for...?” Do you prefer to practice today or on Monday?” vs.Do you want to practice?”

68 68 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Implicit Question Examples  “It would be interesting to know…..”  “I ask myself if…..”  “I don’t know if you would like to tell me……”

69 69 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Implanted Suggestion Examples:  “Do you want to tell me what….?”  “Could you explain me how.... ?”  “Do you want to move to....?” Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

70 70 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Catharsis Facilitation Talk with the person about his/her emotions. Carefully choose an appropriate time and place. Many people do not want to express their feelings. Repressing feelings for an extended period of time often provokes a secondary crisis.

71 71 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Be Alert for… The stage of total denial lasting more than one day Any initial reaction that extends beyond six months Any dysfunctional pattern that has become a habit Any secondary crisis that is not improving Suicide threats and especially attempts Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

72 72 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Critical Incident Management/Debriefing Guidelines:  Situation  Actions/Behaviors  Learning  Continuity  Perspective

73 73 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Focused Conversation Objective Level Reflective Level Interpretive Level Decisional Level Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques Stanfield, R. Brian 1997, ICA, Toronto

74 74 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Suicide Risk & Referral Criteria Chronic lack of sleep (total insomnia) Chronic illness or handicap Hallucinations (voices or visions) that give commands Loss of several or all of their loved ones Suicide-related behaviors Suicide threats Personal or family history of suicide attempts Desperation or hopelessness An increase in drug abuse or alcoholism Openly expressed opinion by relatives or friends that it would be "better" (because of handicaps, etc.) if the person died Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

75 75 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Building Group & Social Resilience Derivation  Physics: elasticity, buoyancy, the ability to quickly return, often stronger, to the original shape  Biology: survival of the most resilient (Darwin)  Sociology: observations and studies of o Children o Adults o Families o Groups

76 76 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Social & Group Resilience “The ability to face internal or external crisis and not only effectively resolve it but also learn from it, be strengthened by it and emerge transformed by it, both individually and as a group.” Brenson-Lazan, 2003

77 77 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Factors in Developing Resilience

78 78 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Personal Development How does a group stimulate & reinforce personal development of each member?  Enhances a sense of personal identity and role  Maintains perceptual and behavioral flexibility  Provides self-awareness and self-correction  Reinforces self-esteem and self-confidence

79 79 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Interpersonal Development How does a group create and reinforce effective interpersonal synergy?  Values diversity  Listens with empathy  Participates and dialogues  Demonstrates mutual affection, forgiveness and self-help

80 80 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Vision How does the group develop its direction?  Creates a set of shared values  Envisions a promising future  Integrates individual goals and aspirations with those of the group

81 81 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Strategic Thinking How does the group determine its mission and the competencies necessary to achieve it?  Sets realistic goals  Elaborates strategies to achieve them  Promotes group reflection, introspection and self-correction  Constructively and creatively resolves challenges, problems and conflicts  Asks for help when it is needed  Monitors, measures and evaluates results Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

82 82 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Developing Transitional Communities Facilitate activities that help form new structures for emotional support  Self-supportive groups  Cultural and recreational activities  Organization of the shelters for displaced people  Self-administration of the shelters Assure and mentor a leadership style appropriate for the level of development within the new social structure.

83 83 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 CADI: Facilitating Self-Help Communities “The CADI is a small group of people who agree to form a community of holistic self- development both personal and professional, with a Group Mentor-Facilitator.” Purpose Identification Image Governance Communication Sub-groups Environment Borders (Limits) Trust Exchange Participation History Brenson, Sarmiento & Rodas, 2001 Characteristics: Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

84 84 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 How Does Conflict Arise?

85 85 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 The Process of Conflict GOAL 1 GOAL 2 NEED 1 NEED 2 STRATEGY 1 STRATEGY 2

86 86 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Process of Conflict Escalation Hardening Persuasion Manipulation Responds best to conciliation INFLEXIBILITY DISCOUNTINGAGGRESSION Polarization (us vs. them) Loss of respect Threats Responds best to conciliation or mediation Verbal Aggression Physical Aggression Destructive Behaviors Responds best to mediation or binding arbitration Adaptation of F.Glasl by Gnass-Brenson, 1998

87 87 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Verbal Expressions of Conflict Hardening: “I know I´m right." Persuasion: “I have to convince them that I am right." Manipulation: “I´ll do whatever is necessary to show that they are wrong." Polarization: “Those of us that know I am right are now all together." Loss of Respect: “It isn´t even worth talking to them." Threats: “We have to dominate those that are not with us." Verbal Aggression: "That person is a #%$*&!" Physical Aggression: “Take this!" Destructive Behaviors: “I may lose but I´ll take some of them with me."

88 88 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Dynamics of Intervention F P2 P1 F P2 F P Click to return to list of Crisis Intervention Techniques

89 89 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Caring for the Caregiver Know your personal limits. Practice active grieving. Maintain a strong support network. Generate more endorphins and reduce cortisol.

90 90 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Cortisol A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to any kind of physical, emotional or psychological stress

91 91 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Endorphins A chemical substance that creates feelings of well-being and stimulates the immunilogical system.

92 92 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 The Constant Battle Our attitudes, thoughts, feelings and behaviors can generate Endorphins and Cortisol. Endorphins and Cortisol destroy each other. Therefore it is not enough to just lower Cortisol or raise Endorphins. Both must be done simultaneously.

93 93 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 How We Generate Cortisol Physically:  Nutritional imbalance  Smoking (directly or indirectly)  Excessive use of alcohol Socially:  Arguments  Telling and hearing lies  Negative Recognition  “Stuck” Relationships  Excessive competition Mentally:  Negative thoughts  Repression of emotions  Stubborness or Inflexibility  Mockery and belittlement Spiritually:  Spiritualization  Dependence  Escapism  Excessive proselytism

94 94 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 How We Generate Endorphins Physically:  Exercise  Massage and touching  Orgasmic sexual relations  Deep Breathing  Balanced Diet Socially:  Dialogue  Family Networks  Give and receive positive unconditional “strokes”  Participation and Consensus  Good friends Mentally:  Smiling and laughing  Positive Thinking  Alpha-stimulating relaxation  Using creativity  Flexibility Spiritually:  Prayer and meditation  Connecting with Nature  Singing and Dancing  Samaritan Syndrome  Defined and lived values

95 95 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Stefan Vanistendael, 1994 Personal Resilience …is the combination of:  The innate human capacity to face adversity and resist destruction  The willingness to evolve and develop oneself in spite of adverse conditions  The use of the adversity itself to learn and transform oneself

96 96 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 PSEUDOTRANSITION Productivity & Self-Esteem PROCESS OF COMMITMENT TO CHANGE INITIAL REACTIONS Decision to abandon the process TRAUMATIC EVENT Actual State Unfreezing Transition Refreezing Desired State DENIAL Expressed Hidden Zone Decision to try new options Caregiver Transition TRANS- FORMATION T I M E

97 97 18 July 2006 All rights reserved. Global Facilitator Service Corps, Inc. © 2006 Through our support of volunteer facilitators worldwide, Global Facilitator Service Corps helps build the capacity of communities to work through their challenges and create sustainable solutions. GFSC believes that people and communities are capable of self-determination and that facilitation is an effective catalyst to build, rebuild and sustain self-reliant communities. By sharing our knowledge, experience, and caring, we enable communities and the institutions that serve them, to identify and achieve their goals.


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