What is Personality? zPersonality yan individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting yfour basic perspectives xPsychoanalytic xTrait xHumanistic xSocial-cognitive
The Psychoanalytic Perspective zFrom Freud’s theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
The Psychoanalytic Perspective zPsychoanalysis yFreud’s psychoanalytic theory that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts ytechniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
The Psychoanalytic Perspective zUnconscious yAccording to Freud- a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories yContemporary viewpoint- information processing of which we are unaware zPreconscious yinformation that is not conscious, but is retrievable into conscious awareness
The Psychoanalytic Perspective zContains three personalities yId ySuperego yEgo
Personality Structure zId ycontains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy ystrives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives yoperates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification yThe “devil” for the conscious
Personality Structure zSuperego ythe part of personality that presents internalized ideals yprovides standards for judgement and for future aspirations yThe “angel” for the conscious
Personality Structure zEgo ythe largely conscious, “executive” part of personality ymediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality yoperates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Personality Structure zFreud’s idea of the mind’s structure Id Superego EgoConscious mind Unconscious mind
Personality Development zPsychosexual Stages ythe childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct zones
Psychosexual Stages Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth-- (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)
The Oral Stage zThe oral stage begins at birth, when the oral cavity is the primary focus of energy. The child preoccupies himself with nursing.
Characteristics of Oral Stage -Ending nursing early, or not being nursed on demand may lead too pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm. -Over-nursed infants may need to optimism, gullible, overly-trusting and is full of admiration for others around him.
The Anal Stage zWith the advent of toilet training comes the child's obsession with the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the feces.
Anal Stage Characteristics zChildren who like conflicts may take pleasure in defecating before or after going to the toilet. yLenient parents will lead to generally messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant. Characterized as “anal expulsive” yToo strict will lead to neat, precise, orderly, careful, stingy, withholding, meticulous, and passive-aggressive. Known as “anal retentive”
Phallic Stage zthe setting for the greatest, most crucial sexual conflict in Freud's model of development. In this stage, the child becomes interested in his genitals.
Phallic Stage for boys zBoys develop a love for their mother known as the “Oedipus complex”. As a result, they develop jealous of envy towards the father and secretly want to overcome or eliminate him.
Phallic Stage for Girls zAt this stage, girls discover that women to not have a penis. She develops erotic and jealously, and envy for her father known as “penis envy” zThe girls erotic love interest in her father, and desire to over-come the mother is know as the “Electra complex”
Latency Period zA period where children lose sexual interest and focus on school, sports, and same-sex friendships.
Genital Stage zReaching puberty, teens become interested in opposite sex relationships. zThe less energy left over from previous stages will result in a more healthy romantic relationship. zIf energy or unresolved conflict is left over, the individual will struggle with adult relationships.
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective zImportant within its historical context zUnique and controversial ideas zHistory does not support Freud’s idea that sexual repression causes psychological disorder
Defense Mechanisms zRepression ythe basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Defense Mechanisms zRegression ydefense mechanism in which an individual retreats, when faced with anxiety, to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated
Defense Mechanisms zReaction Formation ydefense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites ypeople may express feelings that are the opposite of what their “id” desires
Defense Mechanisms zProjection ydefense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others zRationalization ydefense mechanism that offers self- justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions
Defense Mechanisms zDisplacement ydefense mechanism that shifts aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person yas when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Defense Mechanisms zSublimation ydefense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities
Assessing the Unconscious zProjective Test ya personality test that provides stimuli designed to trigger one’s inner dynamics zThematic Apperception Test (TAT) ya projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Assessing the Unconscious- TAT
Assessing the Unconscious zRorschach Inkblot Test ythe most widely used projective test ya set of 10 inkblots yseeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Assessing the Unconscious- Rorschach
Neo-Freudians (followers of Freud) zAlfred Adler yimportance of childhood social tension zKaren Horney ysought to balance Freud’s masculine biases and sexual views zCarl Jung yemphasized the collective unconscious and dreams
The Trait Perspective The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Extraversion Fun-loving versus sober Openness variety verses routine Neuroticism Calm versus anxious Agreeableness Trusting versus suspicious Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized
Individualism vs Collectivism zIndividualism ygiving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes zCollectivism ygiving priority to the goals of one’s group and defining one’s identity accordingly
Individualism vs Collectivism z7 characteristics/concepts ySelf, life task (assignments), what matters (motivation), coping, morality, relationships, attributing behaviors
Individualism vs Collectivism Morality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based) Attributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects social behaviors and attitudes and roles Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) identity from belonging) Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in uniqueness What matters Me--personal achievement and We--group goals and solidarity; fullfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationships Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valued
Social-Cognitive Perspective zReciprocal Determinism yThe idea that out personality is shaped by 3 interacting influences; Internal, Behavior, and Environmental. Internal personal/ cognitive factors (liking high-risk activities) Behavior (learning to bungee jump) Environmental factors (bungee-jumping friends)
Social-Cognitive Perspective zPersonal Control your sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless zExternal Locus of Control ythe perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate
Social-Cognitive Perspective zInternal Locus of Control ythe perception that one controls one’s own fate zLearned Helplessness ythe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Social-Cognitive Perspective zLearned Helplessness Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior
Social-Cognitive Perspective zPositive Psychology ythe scientific study of optimal human functioning yaims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive