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Gender effects in young musicians‘ mastery-oriented achievement behavior and their interactions with teachers Margit Painsi Richard Parncutt Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender effects in young musicians‘ mastery-oriented achievement behavior and their interactions with teachers Margit Painsi Richard Parncutt Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender effects in young musicians‘ mastery-oriented achievement behavior and their interactions with teachers Margit Painsi Richard Parncutt Department of Musicology University of Graz

2 Structure of presentation Theoretical Background MethodResultsConclusion Further research

3 Aims Investigation of gender differences in young musicians‘ achievement behavior... their teachers‘ implicit theories of musical ability attribution patterns and feedback style... and the relationship between them Can motivational training improve achievement behavior?

4 Determining factors of pupils‘ achievement behavior Carol Dweck (2001) Beliefs of school children Implicit theories Attribution patterns Achievement goals Beliefs of school teachers Implicit theories Attribution patterns

5 „Meaning System“ Approach Dweck und Leggett (1988) Implicit self-theories involve personal attributes such as intelligence intelligence musical ability musical ability Implicit theories  motivational framework  meaning system  attributions Implicit self theories can be: entity theories (talent) portray personal attribute as relatively fixed incremental theories (practice) portray attribute as relatively malleable

6 “Meaning System” Approach Goal choicePerformance goalLearning goal Attributions of Success Ability Effort Luck Easiness of task Ability Effort Attributions of Failure Lack of ability  helpless behavior Not enough effort  more effort, new strategies Implicit theory Entity theory (talent) Incremental theory (practice)

7 Impact of teachers‘ implicit theories on their expectations and attribution patterns Incremental Theorists - emphasize learning tasks - confront pupils with challenging tasks - give motivational feedback Entity Theorists - enable pupils to have a lot of successes - avoid challenging tasks - give self-worth protecting feedback

8 Method Part of a larger project called Project aim Evaluate a course on motivation and stress management strategies impact on pupils’ achievement behavior impact on pupils’ achievement behavior practicability as part of school curriculum practicability as part of school curriculum acceptance by teachers and pupils acceptance by teachers and pupils Motivation and stress management training for children and teachers in music schools 10 Girls, 9 Boys Age 12 – Teachers Regional music schools in Styria (Mureck, Leutschach, Deutschlandsberg) Training phase: 8 weekly sessions Data collection: before first session after 4 th session right after concert (after 8 th session) 3 days after concert

9 Measures Attribution Questionnaire (Painsi, 2003) for success and failure in music related contexts Attribution Attribution Questionnaire (Painsi, 2003) for success and failure in music related contexts Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale for Children – Self Form (Dweck, 2000) Implicit Theories Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale for Children – Self Form (Dweck, 2000) Questionnaire Goal Choice Items (Dweck, 2000) Goal Choice Questionnaire Goal Choice Items (Dweck, 2000) Self-Regulation Scale (Schwarzer, 1999) Self-Regulation Self-Regulation Scale (Schwarzer, 1999)

10 Mean ratings Scale 0-4 Teachers‘ Attributions of Success p=.058 p=.024 p=.009

11 Scale 0-4 Mean ratings Teachers Attributions of Failure p=.049

12 Teachers – Stereotyped thinking Attributions of success Girls are successful because they work hard Teachers think that behind every successful boy is a supportive mother Attributions of failure Boys could avoid failures, if they worked harder Teachers do not consiously differentiate between boys and girls when they evaluate talent, effort, confidence and achievement Impact on feedback Girls get feedback that protects their self-worth Boys get motivational feedback

13 Scale 0-5 Effect of teacher beliefs on student goals Performing goals Learning goals T * * *

14 Self-regulation * T * * Scale 0-3

15 Conclusion Impact of teachers‘ theories on pupils achievement behavior Teachers‘ gender stereotypes influence their behavior but not their conscious statements? Pupils of teachers who hold an incremental theory of ability improve their goal choice? Boys improved more on self-regulation?

16 Further research Larger sample Control group with placebo training Development of measurements for self-efficacy Observation of interactive behavior between teacher and student Differentiation between boys and girls but also between different achievement behavior types


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