Presentation on theme: "Circulatory Systems Move Nutrients, Gases and Other Materials"— Presentation transcript:
1Circulatory Systems Move Nutrients, Gases and Other Materials Two basic types:Open system:Blood periodically leaves the blood vessels, bathes the tissues, and is recollected into the vessels.Found in arthropodsClosed system:Blood never leaves the blood vesselsFound in humans and other animals
2Circulatory Systems Move Nutrients, Gases and Other Materials Circulatory systems have three main components:VesselsBloodHeartsEach evolved from rather simple components in primitive worms to highly complex ones found in chordates.
4Animals Must Maintain Proper Water Balance For all cells, water is a precious necessity.It is necessary to maintain the appropriate concentrations of solutes in an organism’s bodySolute concentrations can be different from those found in body compared to the environment.Need to have an ability to regulate the solute concentrations due to these differences.
5Animals Must Maintain Proper Water Balance Fish living in hypertonic environment:Drinks water.Loses water through the gills.Loses solutes in urine and active transport through the gills.
6Animals Must Maintain Proper Water Balance Fish living in hypotonic environment:Drinks no water.Water absorbed by osmosis through gills and body surfaces.Solutes absorbed by active transport at gills.
7Animals Must Maintain Proper Water Balance Terrestrial animals have 5 ways to reduce water loss:Live in moist environmentLive in habitat with high humidityBe active at night when humidity is the highestSpecial body coverings to prevent water loss.
8Animals Must Maintain Proper Water Balance Terrestrial animals have 5 ways to reduce water loss:Organisms living in the desert have special mechanisms for reducing water loss in feces and concentrating wastes in urine
9Organisms Must Get Rid of Metabolic Wastes Cellular metabolism produces waste compounds that must be disposed of.Example: AmmoniaAnimals evolved a number of different excretory systemsBlind tubes that collect waste to more complex organs such as kidneys.
17Sexual Reproduction Evolved Among Bacteria, Protists and Fungi ConjugationCytoplasmic bridge (pilus) develops between two individuals allowing one-way exchange of genetic material.
18Sexual Reproduction Among Eukaryotes Follows three general types:Diploid cycle:Seen in all animals and some protists.All cells of the organism are diploid except for gametes.Gametes remain single-celled, haploid entities until fertilization.
19Sexual Reproduction Among Eukaryotes Follows three general types:Haploid cycle:Seen in all fungi and some algae.All cells of the organism are haploid.Budding and other types of asexual reproduction produce haploid individuals.When reproduce sexually, cells merge, fuse nuclei, and become diploid.Immediately undergo meiosis producing haploid spores
20Sexual Reproduction Among Eukaryotes Follows three general types:Alternating cycle:Seen in all plants and some algaeHas two distinct generationsHaploid gametophyte that produces gametes.Diploid sporophyte that produce spores.
21Sexual Reproduction in Water is Relatively Easy Aquatic organisms spew gametes into the environmentGametes must find each other so fertilization can occurTiming of gamete release is important
22Sexual Reproduction in Water is Relatively Easy Simultaneous release of gametes is important. Two reasons:Facilitates fertilization.Foils predators by “flooding the market”.
23Sexual Reproduction in Water is Relatively Easy Less danger of gametes drying out.Less protected.Eggs have less yolk than those that reproduce on land.
24Many Animals Successfully Reproduce on Land The ability to reproduce on land apparently evolved independently among segmented worms, mollusks, arthropods and chordates.Each group originated in the ocean and evolved successfully in different environments until they became terrestrial organisms.
25Many Animals Successfully Reproduce on Land Transition from water to land is seen most dramatically by comparing their eggs.Marine fish have little yolk and no shells.Eggs of freshwater fish amphibians, which reproduce in nutrient-poor environments, have considerable more yolk and are surrounded by slime layers.
26Many Animals Successfully Reproduce on Land Eggs of reptiles, birds, and primitive mammals are the largest known, contain relatively huge amounts of yolks.
27Many Animals Successfully Reproduce on Land The eggs of advanced mammals have no shells and no yolk.Offspring are retained within the female’s body (marsupials) where they are protected and nourished.
28After Fertilization, Organisms Develop and Grow Pattern of embryonic development has three general phases.First phase: fertilized egg undergoes mitosis which increases the number of cells little or no overall growth in size.
29After Fertilization, Organisms Develop and Grow Second phase:Involves the early appearance of organ system.Third phase:Further refinement of organ systems and significant growth.
31Two patterns of post-hatching and development in birds 1. Hatchlings are virtually helpless and totally dependent on parents for food and protection.2. Hatchlings can find their own food and partially protected from the environment by downy feathers.
32Mammals DevelopmentMammals are helpless at birth and totally dependent on adults for nourishment and protectionInitial nourishment provided by mammary glands.Following weaning, young are still dependent on adults for food.Need to learn where to seek food and shelter, how to avoid predators from associations from parents and adults.