Presentation on theme: "Introductory Task Discussion activities: What are your thoughts on the following? What personal characteristics do people who fail in school have? How."— Presentation transcript:
Introductory Task Discussion activities: What are your thoughts on the following? What personal characteristics do people who fail in school have? How are they different from those who succeed? Do working class people have a different culture from middle class people?
Do the working classes have a culture that leads to educational failure?
Sociological Targets To understand theories of cultural deprivation To recognise that there are a variety of deprivation theories; some functionalist and New Right, others based on Marxism. To evaluate cultural deprivation theories as an explanation of the failure of some children from some social backgrounds.
Personal targets To work independently in class on an assessment exercise. To work with others in the class on discussion points during the lesson To meet assessment deadlines
What is the debate about? Cultural deficit theories suggest that the working class have a culture which leads to educational failure for its children. They tend to claim that: The working class put less emphasis on formal education as a means of personal achievement, and see less value in staying on at school beyond the school-leaving age. Members of the working class place less value on attaining a higher occupational status than the middle class. There are cultural differences between the classes which act as a barrier to success for some children.
What are the issues? Is there a culture or cycle of disadvantage affecting working class children? Is the culture of working class people different or deficient in some way from the culture of the middle classes?
Oscar Lewis (1950s) Introduced the idea of the culture of poverty. Poor people develop distinct sub-cultural values to enable them to survive poverty, but which disadvantaged their children in school. As individuals, people feel helpless and disempowered. By the age of six or seven, children have absorbed the values of their culture and cannot take advantage of opportunities that may occur.
J W B Douglas (1964) Douglas says that middle class parents show a greater interest in the education of their children. There is an emphasis on high attainment in middle class homes. Middle class parents keep in touch with the educational progress of their children. Working class parents do not feel at ease in a middle class situation such as a school.
Hyman (1960s) Members of the working class believe that there is less opportunity for personal advancement for them. This belief is likely to be the basis for the low value put on education and a higher occupational status. It is a realistic assessment of the situation - the working class has less opportunity – however, the belief itself further reduces the opportunity.
Basil Bernstein (1970s) There are two language patterns in daily use - limited codes and extended codes. Limited code is everyday spoken language. Short simple sentences are used and often details and explanations are omitted. Extended code explains things in greater detail and uses long, complex sentences. Both languages are familiar to the middle class but only the limited code is used by the working class. Teachers in school use the extended code and therefore working class children are at a disadvantage from the outset.
This view is very critical of working class culture, viewing them as agents of their own destruction.
Underclass theories (1990s) Charles Murray believes that children brought up in single parent families lack a male role model. Discipline in families has decreased. Young men are not correctly socialised. A culture develops that has these characteristics: Neglect and abuse of children Broken relationships Victimization by crime Despair and fatalism
Dalrymple (2001) The British underclass have developed a culture of: Passive thinking Denial of agency and personal responsibility Dishonesty and self-deception Rationalizations for self-induced helplessness, such as "addiction" Perverse, primitive, valueless sexualization Absolute refusal to apply or accept judgment
Cultural deprivation is viewed in a different way; the working class are victims of the system
C Wright-Mills (1950s) Elite self-recruitment. Members of the highest sectors of society prevent educational failure and protect their interests and those of their children by sending their children to the best public schools. This allows them the chance to acquire the social skills and background to rise to the best and most powerful positions.
Pierre Bourdieu (1977) The middle and upper classes have cultural capital as well as financial capital. They have an advantage over the working class because their parents give them support in terms of books and reading, literature, art, classical music, visits to museums, theatres and art galleries. This culture is closer to the culture of the school, and therefore they are more likely to be successful.
Alice Sullivan (2001) Tried to measure the cultural capital in four comprehensives schools in England. She gave a questionnaire to Year 11 pupils to try and discover which books and newspapers they read and which television programmes they watched. Her research confirmed that there was a strong connection between the cultural capital of parents and that of their children. This supports Bourdieu's supposition that cultural capital is taught by parents in the home.
Compare and contrast New Right and New Left views of cultural deprivation New Right New Left The poor are to blame Poor people have developed a culture that is negative and selfish If the poor fail, it is their own responsibility. The structure of society is to blame. Poor people did not choose to live in poor surroundings If the poor fail, it is the responsibility of the culture we have created.
Evaluations There is little evidence to support the underclass thesis. Most social scientists tend to see the problems of the working class as being related to the structures of society. It makes the working class take the blame for their own failure in education. There is little that is practical that governments or schools can do to solve the problem of working class underattainment
Summary of key points Those who are at the bottom of the class system do not have the values, attitudes and special skills that are essential for educational success. Children and their families are to blame for educational failure. Children who are culturally deprived are lacking in essential skills, attitudes and values. A number of researchers have alleged that there are patterns of class differences.
Assessment Compare and contrast school based theories of underachievement with home based theories of educational failure. Look at the table which follows, write down what you think might be relevant in each box. The first boxes are done for you. Development – try to construct an extended answer using sociological evidence drawn from your previous studies.
School and institutions: RevisionHome and cultural explanations Language Teachers identify with those who speak in the same way and mis-interpret the meanings of those children who do not Students are taught a language at home which is at odds to the one spoken in school Gender Economics Knowledge Ethnicity Parental involvement Interaction
School and institutions: RevisionHome and cultural explanations Language Teachers identify with those who speak in the same way and mis-interpret the meanings of those children who do not Students are taught a language at home which is at odds to the one spoken in school Gender Children are taught gender in school because of gender differentiating behaviours of staff Children are taught in the home to behave along gender role patterns they bring this with them to school Economics Schools serving poor areas lack many of the basic necessities and have poor facilities Poor children will do less well because they lack many basic necessities for health and education Knowledge Teachers impose a set of alien moral values and do not recognise the cultures of the children they serve Students have a home culture which does not value the same knowledge as teachers and schools Ethnicity Schools and teachers are both intentionally and unintentionally racist Children are disadvantaged by lack of language and a sense of alienation from Western cultural values Parental involvement Schools are inefficient and badly run. They are run for the needs of the staff and not the children Parents do not or are unable to take an interest in their children’s education Interaction Teachers label children and then act according to the labels they have accorded to children Children behave in such a way as to trigger teacher responses