2Phychophysiological disorders are those that link physical symptoms with psychological factors Some psychophysiological disorders are brought about purely by psychological factors (e.g. anorexia nervosa)Some psychophysiological disorders have a larger physical component, and are less closely related to psychological factors (e.g. cardiovascular disease) although psychological factors are still importantNuclear Conflict Theory holds that each physiological disorder is associated with certain specific (unconscious) emotional conflicts.
3FreudSometimes a cigar is just a cigar. - Sigmund Freud
4The Psychoanalytic Perspective PsychoanalysisFreud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflictstechniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensionsFree Associationin psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconsciousperson relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
5Stress and Illness Stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
6What Is Stress?Stress is the emotional and physiological process that occurs as one tries to adjust to or deal with environmental circumstances that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, one’s daily functioning.Stressors are the environmental circumstances that cause people to make adjustments.Stress reactions are the physical, psychological, and behavioral responses displayed in the face of stressors.
12Found on: http://www.paniccure.com/Approaches/CBT/Intro_Understandg_P.htm
13Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome resistancePhase 1Alarmreaction(mobilizeresources)Phase 2Resistance(cope withstressor)Phase 3Exhaustion(reservesdepleted)The body’s resistance to stress canlast only so long before exhaustion sets inStressoroccursGeneral Adaptation SyndromeSelye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages
14PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY: the field that examine the relationship between psychosocial processes and nervous, endocrine, and immune system functioning.The Immune system is a group of cells and organs that work together to fight infections in our bodies. Some of these organs are the thymus, spleen and lymphocytes.The Immune System protects our body from pathogens, disease-causing agents, such as bacteria. There are two parts of the Immune System called nonspecific defenses and specific defenses. Nonspecific defenses, also known as the innate immune system, guard infections. These defenses can find foreign tissues, but do not recognize a particular invader. Specific defenses, also known as the adaptive immune system, can track down pathogens that passed through the nonspecific defenses. Resources:
17Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) is also linked to stress, with “stressed out” individuals… Type ATendency to respond to environmental stressors in a particular way; of its components (hostility, competitiveness, aggressiveness, and mistrustHostility is most reliably linked to CDHType BIndividuals are calm and relaxed - essentially they are the anti Type ANot a risk factor for CHDType CCan’t express hostile emotions, are overly agreeable, and avoid conflict.At risk for cancer but there is no clear empirical evidence
185 general strategiesSeeking information refers to evaluating possibilities and their likelihood for successTaking direct actions refers to actually doing something to change the situationInhibiting action refers to suppressing the desire to act; it’s effective if there really is nothing that can be done.Engaging intrapsychic efforts involves suppressing or ignoring upsetting thoughts or reframing them into more positive ones.Calling on others involves asking other people for physical or emotional support or help.
195 major goals associated with coping efforts A. Dealing realistically with the problemB. Tolerating or adjusting emotionally to the negative realitiesC. Attempting to maintain a positive self-imageD. Attempting to maintain emotional equilibriumE. Attempting to continue satisfying relationships with other people
22Social-Cognitive Perspective Personal Controlour sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helplessExternal Locus of Controlthe perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate
23Social-Cognitive Perspective Learned HelplessnessUncontrollablebad eventsPerceivedlack of controlGeneralizedhelpless behavior
24Social-Cognitive Perspective Personal Controlour sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helplessInternal Locus of Controlthe perception that one controls one’s own fate
25Optimistic Thinking Pessimistic Thinking Challenge: open to change. take risks. willingness to make the effort. 'I can do it' 'I will try my best' Control: take responsibility for their actions. proactive. 'I have choices and options' 'If I make a mistake I will do whatever it takes to correct it'Commitment: tendency to persist. 'I will keep trying until it works' 'I will make it happen'Personalize: tendency to take the blame for everything. freeze. 'Its my fault' 'I am bad' or 'I am wrong' Pervasive: tendency to over-generalize. feel overwhelmed. 'Everything I do is wrong' 'I can do nothing right' 'I always make a mess of things'Permanent: tendency to exaggerate. 'It will always be this way' 'Nothing I do will make it change' 'It is always a mess'
26Sense of Coherence (SOC) Professor Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994): the father of the salutogenesisWe are coming to understand health not as the absence of disease, but rather as the process by which individuals maintain their sense of coherence (i.e. sense that life is comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful) and ability to function in the face of changes in themselves and their relationships with their environment. -Aaron Antonovsky.Sense of Coherence(SOC)
27Emotion Joy Anger Interest Sadness Disgust Fear Surprise Emotion a response of the whole organismphysiological arousalexpressive behaviorsconscious experienceSadnessDisgustFearSurprise
28WellnessExercise properlySleep adequatelyMaintaining a healthy diet
31Promoting Health The religion factor is multidimensional Religious involvementHealthybehaviors(less smoking,drinking)Social support(faithcommunities,marriage)Positiveemotions(less stress,anxiety)Better health(less immune systemsuppression, stresshormones, and suicide)
32Promoting Health Life events Tendency toward Health Illness Personal appraisalChallengeThreatPersonality typeEasy going, Nondepressed,OptimisticHostile, Depressed,PessimisticPersonal habitsNonsmoking, Regular exercise, Good nutritionSmoking, Sedentary,Poor nutritionLevel of social supportClose, enduringLacking