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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid,

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Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition O’Donnell, D’Amico, Schmid, Reeve, Smith

2 CHAPTER 9 Motivation to Learn

3 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Chapter 9 Motivation to Learn Themes of the ChapterThemes of the Chapter –Motivation reflects the quality of students’ thinking –Teachers can support students’ motivation by helping them think in constructive ways

4 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions What is motivation, and which motivational states are crucial for learners?What is motivation, and which motivational states are crucial for learners? When students are hesitant, what can a teacher do to promote their confidence?When students are hesitant, what can a teacher do to promote their confidence? How can teachers foster in students a constructive, mastery-oriented reaction to failure?How can teachers foster in students a constructive, mastery-oriented reaction to failure? How can teachers implement a goal-setting program?How can teachers implement a goal-setting program?

5 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions (continued) What can a teacher do to transform an anxiety-ridden classroom climate into a culture of eager learners?What can a teacher do to transform an anxiety-ridden classroom climate into a culture of eager learners? How can teachers help students become self- regulated learners?How can teachers help students become self- regulated learners? How can teachers support motivation in diverse learners and students with special needs?How can teachers support motivation in diverse learners and students with special needs?

6 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Motivation Motivation – any force that energizes and directs behaviourMotivation – any force that energizes and directs behaviour –Five motivational states: Self-efficacy Mastery beliefs Attributions Goals Self-regulation

7 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Quality of Student Functioning: Selection of activitiesSelection of activities Effort and persistenceEffort and persistence Quality of thinking and feelingQuality of thinking and feeling Motivation

8 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Self-Efficacy A person’s judgment of how well (or how poorly) he or she will cope with a situationA person’s judgment of how well (or how poorly) he or she will cope with a situation

9 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Selection of Activities Students with low self-efficacy activitiesStudents with low self-efficacy avoid activities Students with high self-efficacy activitiesStudents with high self-efficacy approach activities What are some examples of tasks in which you experienceWhat are some examples of tasks in which you experience –Low self-efficacy? –High self-efficacy? Why Self-Efficacy Is Important

10 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Effort and Persistence When experiencing self-doubt:When experiencing self-doubt: –Students with low self-efficacy Slacken effortSlacken effort Give upGive up –Students with high self-efficacy Recover their sense of self-assurance quicklyRecover their sense of self-assurance quickly Persist and exert effortPersist and exert effort Why Self-Efficacy Is Important

11 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Quality of Thinking and Feeling In stressful situationsIn stressful situations –Students with low self-efficacy Are distracted from the taskAre distracted from the task Think about their deficienciesThink about their deficiencies Experience anxietyExperience anxiety –Students with high self-efficacy Are task-focusedAre task-focused Experience less anxietyExperience less anxiety Why Self-Efficacy Is Important

12 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

13 Sources of Self-efficacy Personal behaviour historyPersonal behaviour history Vicarious experienceVicarious experience Verbal persuasionVerbal persuasion Psychological statesPsychological states Environmental factorsEnvironmental factors

14 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Mastery Modelling Program – perceiving that one possesses the knowledge, skills, and beliefs needed to silence doubt and exert control over one’s learningEmpowerment – perceiving that one possesses the knowledge, skills, and beliefs needed to silence doubt and exert control over one’s learning

15 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Mastery Modelling Program Teacher measures student self-efficacyTeacher measures student self-efficacy Teacher models skillsTeacher models skills Student emulates skillsStudent emulates skills Student integrates new skills into a performanceStudent integrates new skills into a performance Student practice in cooperative learning groupsStudent practice in cooperative learning groups Student individually performs skills in a situationStudent individually performs skills in a situation Teacher constantly models confidenceTeacher constantly models confidence

16 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Self-Efficacy in Students with Learning Disabilities Teachers can promote more accurate task analysisTeachers can promote more accurate task analysis – ongoing corrective process in which the person adjusts his/her sense of self-confidence with a task to reflect performance more accuratelyCalibration – ongoing corrective process in which the person adjusts his/her sense of self-confidence with a task to reflect performance more accurately –Observe capabilities –Students with learning disabilities sometimes overestimate their skills –Adjust self-efficacy

17 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Mastery Beliefs Students’ beliefs as to how much control they have over the outcome (success or failure) of their workStudents’ beliefs as to how much control they have over the outcome (success or failure) of their work

18 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Reactions to Failure Failure: Goals: Attributions: Ability: Strategies: Involvement: Low fear of failureLow fear of failure Learning goalsLearning goals Effort, strategiesEffort, strategies IncrementalIncremental Adaptive strategiesAdaptive strategies Task involvedTask involved Students who feel helpless to prevent failure, rejection, and losing give up, withdraw, accept failureStudents who feel helpless to prevent failure, rejection, and losing give up, withdraw, accept failure

19 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Learned-Helplessness Students Failure: Goals: Attributions: Ability: Strategies: Involvement: High fear of failureHigh fear of failure Lack of goalsLack of goals Luck, difficult tasksLuck, difficult tasks DenigratedDenigrated InappropriateInappropriate WithdrawalWithdrawal When a student expects that school-related outcomes are beyond his/her personal controlWhen a student expects that school-related outcomes are beyond his/her personal control

20 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition – an explanation for success or failureAttribution – an explanation for success or failure Three dimensions of attributionsThree dimensions of attributions –Locus: Internal vs. External –Stability: Stable vs. Unstable –Controllability: Controllable vs. Uncontrollable Attributions

21 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition – Why do bad things happen? Explanatory Style – Why do bad things happen? Pessimistic stylePessimistic style –Helpless: Attribute outcomes to stable and uncontrollable causes Optimistic styleOptimistic style –Mastery-oriented thinkers: Attribute outcomes to unstable and uncontrollable causes Attributions

22 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Preventing Helplessness and Fostering Mastery Change an unresponsive environmentChange an unresponsive environment –Teach students how to do well Change students’ pessimistic explanatory style into an optimistic oneChange students’ pessimistic explanatory style into an optimistic one –Help students identify the link between behaviour

23 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Hope – a motivational wish for an outcome that one expects to be fully capable of obtainingHope – a motivational wish for an outcome that one expects to be fully capable of obtaining Hope is highest when student sees multiple paths to a goalHope is highest when student sees multiple paths to a goal –High self-efficacy and high mastery beliefs = More persistence –Multiple pathways to success = More hope = Mastery motivation

24 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Academic Performance of Canada’s Youth – 2003Academic Performance of Canada’s Youth – 2003 –According to a major international study, Canadian 15- year-old students are among the best in the world in mathematics, reading, and problem Solving –The study found that a students’ self-confidence and level of anxiety about mathematics were strongly associated with their performance –Students with a high level of anxiety about math, such as feelings of helplessness or stress when dealing with math, performed much lower than students with less anxiety Canadian Research into Practice

25 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition – whatever a student is striving to accomplishGoal – whatever a student is striving to accomplish Goal-directed behaviour helps students perform better than they would without goalsGoal-directed behaviour helps students perform better than they would without goals Goals

26 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Characteristics of Goals Difficulty –Increases persistence Specificity –Increases effort –Directs attention –Encourages strategic planning

27 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Goals Implementation Intentions –Forming a plan Feedback –Keeping track of progress; knowledge of results

28 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Your Turn Generate an example of a:Generate an example of a: –Weak goal for studying for this course –Strong goal for studying for this course

29 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Goal-Setting Programs Steps in a goal-setting program: 1.Specify the objective to be accomplished 2.Define goal difficulty 3.Define goal specificity 4.Specify the time span until performance will be assessed 5.Check on goal acceptance 6.Discuss goal attainment strategies 7.Create implementation intentions 8.Provide performance feedback

30 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Student finds role model attractive, desires to emulate role modelStudent finds role model attractive, desires to emulate role model Becomes aware of discrepancies between “current self” and the “possible self”Becomes aware of discrepancies between “current self” and the “possible self” Current SelfAttractive Possible Self My Attributes Role Model’s AttributesMy Attributes Role Model’s Attributes My CharacteristicsRole Model’s CharacteristicsMy CharacteristicsRole Model’s Characteristics My AbilitiesRole Model’s AbilitiesMy AbilitiesRole Model’s Abilities Possible Selves

31 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Achievement Goals – where performance is measured against a standard of excellence Achievement Goals – where performance is measured against a standard of excellence Learning goals – intention to learnLearning goals – intention to learn –Improve competence Positive and productive way of thinkingPositive and productive way of thinking Performance goals – intention to demonstrate ability and prove one’s competencePerformance goals – intention to demonstrate ability and prove one’s competence –Demonstrate ability to others Negative and unproductive way of thinkingNegative and unproductive way of thinking

32 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Performance Goal Characteristics Approach –Show how smart one is –Attain positive judgments from others Avoidance –Avoid looking stupid –Avoid negative judgments

33 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Self-Regulation – deliberate planning, monitoring, and evaluating of one’s academic work Self-regulation – deliberate planning, monitoring, and evaluating of one’s academic work Setting goalsSetting goals Using effective strategiesUsing effective strategies Monitoring effectivenessMonitoring effectiveness Making adjustments as neededMaking adjustments as needed

34 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Self-Regulatory Processes ForethoughtForethought –Task analysis –Goal setting –Strategic planning –Implementation intentions Reflection Reflection –Self-monitoring –Self-evaluating

35 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Coregulation – collaborative process in which the teacher and student jointly plan, monitor, and evaluate student’s academic workCoregulation – collaborative process in which the teacher and student jointly plan, monitor, and evaluate student’s academic work –Observation of expert model –Imitation –Social guidance –Feedback

36 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Self-Regulation for Students in Different Grades and Learners with Special Needs Grade levels –Early grades: receiving substantial external support –Late elementary grades: show personal responsibility –High school years: self-initiate study and assume full responsibility Students with special needs –Need added external support Offer students goalsOffer students goals Encourage student monitoringEncourage student monitoring Provide an evaluationProvide an evaluation

37 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Copyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


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