Presentation on theme: "Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development CHAPTER 10Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development
2Theories of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood
3Theories of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood Psychoanalytic theoryFreud maintained children are in latency stageSexual feelings remain repressed (unconscious)Focus is on development of intellectual, social, and other cultural skillsErikson maintained children are in industry vs. inferiority stageMastery of cognitive and social skills give children sense of industry or competenceChildren having difficulties with peers or school may develop sense of inferiority
4Social-Cognitive Theory Focuses on rewards and modeling during middle childhoodIncrease from external rewards and punishments to regulation of own behaviorSocial cognitionPerception of the social worldFocus is on children’s perspective-taking skillsFive levels of perspective-taking skills (Selman, 1976)
6Development of the Self-Concept in Middle Childhood More abstract internal traits or personality traits play a role9-year-olds focus on physical traits, such as eye color, in self-definition.11-year-olds indicate movement toward greater concern with psychological traits and social relationships.
7Self-Esteem Evaluation of self-worth in multiple areas as children age Children’s self-esteem declines through childhood and increases again in adolescence.Girls tend to have positive self-concepts in academics and helping othersBoys have positive self-concepts in math, physical ability, and physical appearanceChildren with favorable self-image tend to have parents who are restrictive, involved, and loving.Parents and peers equally influential for self-esteem
8Learned Helplessness Learned helplessness “Helpless” children Acquired belief that one is unable to obtain the rewards that one seeks“Helpless” childrentend to quit following failurebelieve that success is more due to ability than to efforttend to have lower grades and lower IQ and achievement test scoresRegardless of ability, girls still view themselves as less confident in math.
10Parent-Child Relationships Control is gradually transferred from parent to child in a process known as coregulation.Children begin to internalize the standards of their parentsChildren and parents spend less time together.Parents monitor less and give less direct feedbackChildren spend more time with mother than father.10- to 12-year-olds evaluate parents more harshly than they did in early childhood.Still rate parents as best source of emotional support
11Lesbian and Gay Parents Psychological adjustment of children growing up with gay parents similar to children growing up with heterosexual parentsSexual orientation of children tends to be heterosexual regardless of sexual orientation of parents
12Generation X or Generation Ex Generation X or Generation Ex? What Happens to Children Whose Parents Get Divorced?1 million American children experience divorce per year.40% European-American and 75% of African-American children spend at least part of their childhoods in single-parent families as a result of divorceMost divorced women raise their children in poverty .Mother’s time is focused on workingFathers become more absent as time goes by following a divorce.Children of divorce more likely to have conduct problems, lower self-esteem, poor grades, and drug abuse.
13Generation X or Generation Ex Generation X or Generation Ex? What Happens to Children Whose Parents Get Divorced (cont’d)Children’s physical health may decline.Fallout of children is worst during the first year after the break up.Children rebound after a couple of years or so.
14Life in Stepfamilies: His, Hers, Theirs, and... One in three American children spend part of their childhood in a stepfamily.Stepchildren at greater risk of abusePhysical abuse by stepparent than biological parentSexual abuse by stepparent by a factor of eight than by natural parentEvolutionary psychologists maintain better treatment of one’s own children increases own genes to flourish in the next generation
15Should We Remain Married “for the Sake of the Children?” Severe parental bickering linked to same kinds of problems that children experience when parents are divorced or separatedChildren exposed to adult or marital conflict display “alarm reaction”Heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating rise sharplyDivorce may be positive alternative to family conflict
16The Effects of Maternal Employment Maternal employment and nonmaternal care indicated in some negative effects on childrenMaternal employment makes no difference with delinquent behavior.However, lack of supervision doesDaughters of employed mothers are more achievement-oriented and set higher career goals for themselves than daughters of nonworking women.Children of working mothers tend to be prosocial, less anxious, and more flexible in their gender-role stereotypes than other children.
18Peer Relationships Peers are more important during middle childhood. Peers help with practicing cooperation, relating to leaders, and coping with aggressive impulses.Peers help children with appropriate impulses.Peers serve as sounding boards when comparing feelings and experiences, helping friends to understand that they are not alone.
19Peer Acceptance and Rejection Popular children tend to be attractive, good at academics or sports, mature for their ageAttractiveness more important for girls than boysChildren displaying behavioral problems, learning problems, and aggression, and who disrupt group activities are more likely to be rejected by peers.Rejected children tend to remain on the fringes of the group instead of conforming
20Development of Friendships Between 8 and 11 years of age, focus on friendship turns to recognition of importance of friends meeting each other’s needs and possessing desirable traitsPick friends who are similar to themIn behavior and personalityTrustworthiness, mutual understanding, and a willingness to disclose personal information characterize middle childhood friendships and beyond
21Development of Friendships (cont’d) Selman (1980) identified five stages in children’s changing concepts of friendship0) Momentary physical interaction1) One-way assistance2) Fair-weather cooperation3) Intimate and mutual sharing4) Autonomous interdependenceSchool-age friends are more verbal, expressive, relaxed, and mutually responsive to each other during play than are acquaintances.Boys are more likely to play in large groups than girls; 9-year-olds typically have 4 best friends
24The School School readiness/success considers three factors 1) The diversity and inequity of children’s early life experiences2) Individual differences in young children’s development and learning3) Degree to which schools establish reasonable and appropriate expectations of children’s capabilities when they enter schoolKindergarten teachers report that many children are coming to school unprepared to learn.Lack of language skills, poor healthcare, inadequate stimulation, and lack of support from parents place children at risk.
25The School Environment: Setting the Stage for Success, or . . . Effective schools have the following characteristicsActive, energetic principalAtmosphere that is orderly but not oppressiveEmpowered teachers involved in decision-makingTeachers who have high expectations that children will learnCurriculum that emphasizes academicsFrequent assessment of student performanceEmpowered students who participate in goal setting, making decisions, and engaging in cooperative learning activities
26Teachers Teachers with high expectations influence achievement. Students learn more when actively instructed.Student achievement linked to emotional climate of the classroomNegative responses such as criticism, ridicule, threat, or punishment impede learning.Children learn best in pleasant, friendly atmosphere.
27Teacher Expectations Pygmalion effect Self-fulfilling prophesy “You find what you are looking for”Self-fulfilling prophesyTeachers expect higher performance, and the child performs accordinglyTeacher expects lower performance, and the child performs accordinglyRosenthal and Jacobson (1968) tricked teachers into believing that one set of children were about to blossom forth intellectually during the current school year.Children made significant IQ gains
28Teacher Expectations (cont’d) Teachers expect less from lower SES and minority students.Hence less time is spent encouraging these childrenTo motivate children, teachers canmake the classroom interestingensure all children profit from social interactionhave a safe and pleasant classroomunderstand diverse backgroundshelp students take responsibility for their successes and failures,encourage the link between effort and achievementhelp students establish attainable short-term goals
29Sexism in the Classroom Girlstreated unequally by their teachers, male peers, and the school curriculumpaid less attention to in math, science, and technologysubject to sexual harassment from male classmatesTeachers ignore itStereotypical females depicted in textbooksBoys dominate classroom communication, call out answers 8 times more than girlsCalling out accepted by boys, girls reminded to raise their handsTeachers unaware until they saw the video of themselves (Sadker and Silber, 2007)
31Social and Emotional Problems Conduct disorders (CD)Child persistently breaks rules or violates the rights of othersExhibits behaviors such as lying, stealing, fire setting, truancy, cruelty to animals, and fightingEmerges by age 8; more prevalent in boys than girlsMore likely to engage in sexual activity before puberty, more likely to smoke before puberty, drink, and abuse other substancesCauses of CD may begenetics, antisocial family members, deviant peers, inconsistent discipline, parental insensitivity to child’s behavior, physical punishment, and family stressTreatment of CD includesparent training, consequences for unacceptable behavior, teaching methods for coping with feelings of anger that will not violate others, and rewards for positive social behavior
32Social and Emotional Problems (cont’d) Childhood depressionChild feels sad, may show poor appetite, insomnia, lack of energy and inactivity, loss of self-esteem, difficulty concentrating, loss in interest in activities they were once interested in, crying, feelings of helplessness, and thoughts of suicideOrigins of depressionComplex and variedPsychological and biologicalA child’s attributional style may contribute to depression:Depressed children more likely to attribute the causes of their failures to internal, stable, and global factors that they are helpless to change
33Social and Emotional Problems (cont’d) Depression occurs equally in boys and girls.Can be comorbid with CDLongitudinal studies on children have found problems in academics, socializing, physical appearance, and sports can predict feelings of depression.A child’s attributional style may contribute to depression.Depressed children more likely to attribute the causes of their failures to internal, stable, and global factors that they are helpless to change.
34Social and Emotional Problems (cont’d) Heritability of depression was found to be 49% in females and 25% in males (Orstavik et al., 2007).Psychotherapy for depression is mostly cognitive behavioral.Children encouraged to do enjoyable things and build social skillsAntidepressants for depression are administered with caution due to link between use and suicidal thoughts.
35Social and Emotional Problems (cont’d) Childhood depression can be comorbid with childhood anxiety disorders.Children can suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), phobias, separation anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).Children from different cultures more likely to have one disorder than anotherSeparation anxiety disorder (SAD) more common in girls and associated with school refusal; diagnosed when age inappropriate, excessive
36Social and Emotional Problems (cont’d) School phobiaFear of schoolType of SADHigh parental expectations to perform may heighten the phobia, as well as problems with peersTreatment of school phobiaGet the child back into schoolSymptoms disappear once the child is back in schoolMay also consist of antidepressant medication along with cognitive-behavioral therapyMost children in developed nations come through middle childhood quite well and ready for adolescence.