Presentation on theme: "Comparing Nonverbal and Verbal Codes. A woman without her man is helpless."— Presentation transcript:
Comparing Nonverbal and Verbal Codes
A woman without her man is helpless.
A woman, without her, man is helpless.
Channel Reliance Research Research paradigms a. Experimental b. Natural observations c. Meta-analysis
Channel Reliance Research Propositions –Adults rely more on NV than V; children rely more on V. –Reliance on NV is greater when the V & NV conflict. –Reliance depends on function at stake. –Information averaging when channels are congruent. –Variability in info processing and reliance on extreme or negative cues when content is incongruent. –Individuals biases in channel dependence.
Channel Reliance Research Reasons for differential and variable reliance?
Coding Properties: Analogic versus Digital Digital systems –discrete –arbitrary –finite Analogic systems –continuous –natural –infinite Need to distinguish code properties from interpretive processes
Coding Properties: Design Features of Codes Discrete v. continuous Symbolic (extrinsic) v. sign (intrinsic) Iconicity Syntax rules Transformation Semantic rules Pragmatic rules Productivity Polysemy Universal v. culture- and context-bound meaning Displacement Reflexivity Prevarication Coherence mechanisms Direct v. mediated response
Applicability to Verbal versus Nonverbal Coding Discrete v. continuous Symbolic v. sign Iconicity Syntax rules Transformation Semantic rules Pragmatic rules Productivity Polysemy Universal v. culture- and context-bound meaning Displacement Reflexivity Prevarication Coherence mechanisms Direct v. mediated response
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior Alternative possibilities –Exclusively nurture (totally learned) –Physiological/anatomical predispositions but learned performance –Universal needs but variability in environmental influences on enactment –Exclusively nature (innate and part of biological heritage)
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior Types of evidence –Comparative studies (primates, other vertebrates) e.g., laughing, smiling, threat stare, grooming, fright vocalizations, spacing patterns –Child development research stages of normal development common to all reflexive behaviors present in all infants (crying, toe curling, grasping) observations of blind, deaf, and limbless children
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior Types of evidence –Comparative studies (primates, other vertebrates) –Child development research – Cross-cultural studies
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior Conclusions about nonverbal/verbal differences –verbal –nonverbal
Neurophysiological Processing Early/traditional views of hemispheric processing –bicameral brain function--horizontal perspective –high lateralization--strong differentiation of functions –analytic/holistic dichotomy –NV defined according to where it is processed
Neurophysiological Processing Contemporary views –interdependence & coordination of functions coordinated via corpus collosum relative, not absolute, dominance right hemisphere is essential for many linguistic activities people with left hemisphere damage able to decode with right hemisphere
Neurophysiological Processing Contemporary views –lability in handling other hemisphere’s functions –cultural and style differences –two hemispheres communicate with each other –dominance depends on nature of signal
Perception by right hemisphere melodies, music tonal patterns pitch, rate, volume laughing, crying coughing emotional stimuli distinguishing fingers recognition of faces familiar environmental noises location of geometric forms depth perception recognition of space & form topographic memory spatial disorientation body type distortions letters matched to words imagery recall strategies
Perception by left hemisphere vowels spoken digits rhythmic patterns semantic units (words) nonsense words function words letters verbal tasks visual verbal material free movement during speech skilled movements pictures matched to letters subvocal rehearsal recall strategies music perceived as notes
Encoding by right hemisphere automatic speech serial speech (alphabet) social gestural speech strong emotional utterances artistic ability model building
Encoding by left hemisphere free movement during speech
Relationship of Gestures to Language Semiotic Functions –Ekman & Friesen approach –Scherer linguistic approach semantic syntactic pragmatic dialogic –McNeill information-processing approach
Relationship of Gestures to Language development of interactional nonverbal cues (e.g., gestures) coincides with the development of language baseball theory--stone throwing/gestures and language development
Message Production gestures that relate to speech –ones referring to the ideational process –gestures referring to the object: depictive gestures –gestures referring to the object: evocative kinds
Message Production Gestures and speech flow –hierarchical nature of language –phonemic clauses and chunking of speech –gestures preceding speech, priming the pump –illustrator gestures that trace thought
Message Production Nonverbal cues and cognitive effort –indicators of cognitive difficulty and effort –indicators of level of abstraction
Message Processing and Decoding Definition –How humans acquire, store, retrieve, and use information; how information is gleaned from messages and interpreted
Message Processing and Decoding Related to: –attention and priming –comprehension and memory storage –recall –inference-making
Message Processing and Decoding Nonverbal cues of attention, priming and distraction –vocal cues –immediacy cues –facial and gestural cues –physical appearance –environmental influences
Message Processing and Decoding Nonverbal cues related to comprehension, storage and recall –paralinguistic and parakinesic cues –speech primacy gestures (illustrators) –motor primacy gestures (emblems) –incongruent messages –speaker self-synchrony – interactional synchrony
Message Processing and Decoding Cues in inference-making –nonverbal impressions