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Motivation Theories. Maslow: Need for achievement Hierarchy of needs: Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization’ Must attain the lower order.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Theories. Maslow: Need for achievement Hierarchy of needs: Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization’ Must attain the lower order."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation Theories

2 Maslow: Need for achievement Hierarchy of needs: Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization’ Must attain the lower order needs before next higher can be activated How can the physical educator help students meet their hierarchy of needs?

3 Bandura: Social Learning Decisions to be involved in class based on: –Efficacy expectation: belief of student that he/she can be successful in task execution –Outcome expectation:belief that the expected outcome can be achieved and it is a worthwhile action

4 Expectations differ based on: Level of task perceived possible (do the students think this is at their level of ability?) Has the student had success in a previous similar situation? (positive transfer?) Strength of expectations even though there may be somewhat negative previous experiences

5 Students with high expectations will try new activities & expend more effort If the outcome is viewed as positive, more likely to try it out If perceived unable to do it, won’t try even if the outcome is fun or positive

6 Efficacy expectations may be altered by: –Competence –Modeling –Verbal persuasion –Emotional arousal Inverted U theory Development of coping skills Strategies to ensure success: good progressions, realistic standards, use of alternative teaching styles, reduce “on- stage” experiences

7 Attribution theory Success attributed to internal causes increases self-esteem and motivation Success attributed to external causes has no effect on self-esteem Success with minimal effort yields strong sense of ability Success through challenge yields stronger self-efficacy

8 Students who think failure is due to a lack of ability that they can’t change or alter are ‘learned helpless’ –“controllable events” are uncontrollable –If failure experienced in previous situation, won’t try because it’s a “lost cause” See questions to help identify learned helpless students in text, pg. 348

9 Breaking the cycle Step 1: Set goals that are specific; hard but attainable; establish short term goals Step 2: Use teaching strategies that enable students to accomplish goals –Alternate teaching styles; peer tutors; mastery learning; specific feedback and encouragement

10 Step 3: Focus on progress rather than end result. (Student needs to see that effort resulted in progress) Step 4: Once skills are learned (or improving), student should be helped to attribute success to effort and ability rather than luck. If failure occurs, help student attribute failure to poor learning strategy rather than ability

11 Self-fulfilling prophecy Students perform at level of teacher’s expectations –On what do you form your expectations? High skilled vs. low skilled? Male vs. female students? Type of activity and who it stereotypes? Attractive students and those who “try” Obese vs. thin students? Low skilled students who internalize low teacher expectations= learned helpless

12 Do physical education teachers lack an expectation for learning in their classrooms? –Observe: do teachers present tasks with concrete examples, brief explanations, cues? –Do teachers refine, extend, apply tasks so that students learn a progression of skills? –Do teachers provide specific feedback, critical thinking questions, and modify tasks to ensure student success? –Do teachers provide ample opportunities to learn, or do we throw students into “games” too soon?

13 Examine: what do teachers do intentionally or unintentionally to disinvite students to learn? How can we invite students to learn?

14 Discipline A good learning environment is key to a discipline plan Teachers need to know when to be an authoritarian, when to be permissive, and when to take the middle road –Also need to know what battles to pick

15 Discipline Ideally, teachers and students engage in teaching and learning activities together –But, differing personalities may bring about conflict and unacceptable behaviors 5% of a class may be out of control at any time

16 Preventative Discipline Inviting students to succeed –Believe in them –Teach students, not the lesson plan or a particular sport/activity –Praise students sincerely –Listen actively You can’t always fix it, but respond to feelings –Have a relevant curriculum

17 Your discipline model Whatever happens requires determining why a specific behavior has occurred –Without a problem may improve immediately, but it won’t be resolved Behaviors that are to be increased should be reinforced, behaviors to be decreased should be punished –Verbal positive reinforcers, non-verbal reinforcers

18 Your discipline model Prevent misbehavior from happening –Good preparation –Appropriate expectations –Hold accountable for learning –Inclusive teaching

19 Appropriate Discipline Wait aggressively Rules/consequences Individual conference Loss of privileges Time out Administrative assistance Mediation

20 Inappropriate Discipline Coercion Corporal punishment Ridicule Exercise as punishment Group punishment

21 What to do? #1 Keep a cool head Proper action depends on your philosophy, the students and the incident School policy may limit what can be done Often cause of discipline problems is due to the classroom environment Be confident, consistent in your expectations, and detect early signs of problems, be decisive in your actions

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