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© Boardworks Ltd 20091 of 8
2 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Chromosome number A human somatic (body) cell contains 46 chromosomes. These consist of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Sex cells, or gametes, have only one copy of each chromosome: they are haploid. A somatic cell, containing two of each, is called diploid. Each pair contains one chromosome from each parent. Other species have different numbers of these homologous pairs.
3 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Haploid gametes These gametes are genetically unique because, unlike somatic cells, they were formed by a special form of cell division called meiosis. All somatic cells in a multicellular organism are genetically identical because they are the result of mitosis. They are all descended from a single cell – a zygote. A zygote is formed when two haploid gametes fuse.
4 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Meiosis I and II Meiosis I introduces genetic diversity by randomly dividing a cell’s genes in two. It results in two haploid cells. Meiosis is the process of cell division underlying sexual reproduction. It is a two-stage process: Meiosis II is similar to mitosis. It splits each chromosome into its two chromatids and places one in each daughter cell. It results in four haploid gametes.
5 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Genetic variation Sexual reproduction creates genetic diversity within a population, which is vital to a species’ survival. During meiosis I, homologous pairs of chromosomes swap parts of their genetic material. This is crossing over. Two processes during meiosis determine the unique genetic make-up of the four daughter cells: The chromosomes from each pair are randomly allotted to the daughter cells by independent assortment.
6 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Meiosis
7 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Meiosis: true or false?
© Boardworks Ltd 20098 of 8 Variation from meiosis
Stem Cells. Starter Define these words: Gene Locus Allele Mitosis Meiosis Homologous chromosomes Chromatid Diploid A.One of the two copies of a chromosome.
1 of 10© Boardworks Ltd of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Meiosis I and II Meiosis I introduces genetic diversity by randomly dividing a cell’s genes.
Mitosis and the Cell cycle. Mitosis and Cell Cycle Learning Objectives - Explain the significance of mitosis - Explain the meaning of the term homologous.
Problem: Our cells have 46 chromosomes—so why don’t fertilized eggs have 92 chromosomes?
Notes E 4.3 Meiosis is a special form of cell division.
What are we learning today? 1.What are the phases of meiosis and what happens during each phase? 2.What is the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction?
Meiosis Sexual Reproduction. Why is meiosis important? Make eggs and sperm for reproduction Genetic diversity – half DNA from father and half from mother=
Meiosis Diploid (2N) – 2 sets of chromosomes 1) In humans what is the diploid chromosome number? Haploid (N) – 1 set of chromosomes 2) In humans what.
Meiosis 15 October, 2004 Text Chapter 13. In asexual reproduction, individuals give rise to genetically identical offspring (clones). All cell division.
CHAPTER 11: INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS Standards B.1.8, B.1.21, B.1.28, B.1.29 Section 11.4: Meiosis.
Cell Division- Meiosis How it leads to Variation.
Chapter 13 Meiosis. Living Things Reproduce Results in similarities and differences between offspring and parents Facilitated by heredity or inheritance.
MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION CONTINUITY – Genetic information passes from generation to generation GENETIC VARIATION – differences between individuals;
Meiosis. Meiosis A type of cell division that produces four cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the parents Homologous Chromosomes: Two.
MEIOSIS Four haploid Algae Cells. MEIOSIS “Cell Division which produces Gametes with half the number of chromosomes in the parent’s body.” In humans,
Cell Cycle Jeopardy Categories: Five. Daily Doubles: Three.
Meiosis What is Meiosis? A division of the nucleus that reduces chromosome number by half. Important in sexual reproduction Involves combining the genetic.
Mitosis & Meiosis. Mitosis Asexual Cellular Reproduction Asexual Cellular Reproduction.
MEIOSIS (textbook section 3.1 pg 74). Sexual reproduction produces offspring that is genetically similar, but different from the parents. This is accomplished.
Meiosis Practice Test. 1. Which of these is accomplished by meiosis? Choose all that apply. a. It allows multicellular organisms to get bigger in size.
EQ: What are the major differences between Meiosis and Mitosis?
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sex cells formed by meiosis Requires 2 parents Offspring not identical The process that results in the formation of gametes Sex cells,
Meiosis Cell division in sex cells that produces gametes containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent’s body cells (somatic cells)
Answer the following question in a complete sentence. A carrot cell contains 18 chromosomes. Which of the diagrams at the right illustrates the correct.
Asexual Reproduction. Sexual Reproduction recombination of genetic material More combinations means there is a higher chance at least some will survive.
Ways to show the number of chromosomes in a cell. 2n 2 copies of each chromosome Body cells n 1 copy of each chromosome Sex cells DIPLOIDHAPLOID.
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction n n 2n Review Question Discussion Question.
1 of 11© Boardworks Ltd of 11© Boardworks Ltd 2011 What are sex cells? Sex cells in animals and plants are called gametes. In animals, the gametes.
What is mitosis? The way cells divide to produce more body cells.
Y10 Reproduction. Cell Division Learning objectives Know that mitosis is the division of a diploid cell that produces two genetically identical cells.
MEIOSIS NOTES Double cell division Reproduction Asexual (relies on mitosis): used to create new identical organisms. All of the parent organism’s DNA.
Unit 2 – Genetics & Adaptation. Meiosis Chapter 12.
Table of contents Intro to Bio Notes Page # Types of Biology Activity Page # Body System NotesPage # food Journal (3 pages)Page #- Page # Digestion NotesPage.
Chapter 13 Things you should know!. Asexual vs. Sexual reproduction Genes are segments of DNA that code for the basic units of heredity. (They are also.
Meiosis and Genetic Variation Review Sections 6.1, 6.2, and
Meiosis 10/29/09. What can you tell me about Mitosis?
10.1 Meiosis Learning Targets: Describe chromosomes in the phases of meiosis. Outline chiasmata in crossing over. Explain how meiosis results in genetic.
6.1 Chromosomes and Meiosis KEY CONCEPT Gametes (sex cells) have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.
Bellwork Draw this in your notes and fill in the phases of mitosis.
Chapter 10.1, Meiosis. Chromosomes and Genes Recall from chapter 9, during mitosis, the DNA (Chromatin) condenses into x-shaped structures called chromosomes.
Meiosis – A Source of Distinction Why do you share some but not all characters of each parent? What are the rules of this sharing game? At one level, the.
Unit 8- Reproduction 8a- Meiosis & Variation. Collect! Benchmark 3 Study Guides that were due yesterday.
Meiosis Mitosis vs. Meiosis Genetic constancy via replication Genetic diversity via recombination (shuffling) How many outfits can be made from.
Cell Reproduction Two types of reproduction: Mitosis: Purpose = produces regular body cells for growth and repair Meiosis: Purpose = produces sex cells.
Meiosis Cell division process whereby the number of chromosomes in a diploid cell is reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes.
Reduction-Division Genetic Recombination 1. cell division GAMETES, HALF CHROMOSOMES, The form of cell division by which GAMETES, with HALF the number.
Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles. Asexual reproduction: Single individual is sole parent, passes copies of all its genes to its offspring (exact.
Meiosis and Karyotypes. Somatic Cells v. Gametes 0 Somatic – body cells 0 Ex. Skin, liver, eyeballs 0 Gametes – sex cells 0 Ex. Egg or sperm (DNA here.
DIPLOID Diploid = 2(n) In humans: n=23 chromosomes 2(n)= 46 total chromosomes 2 sets of each chromosomes Somatic cells are diploid Body Cells (nerve, muscle,
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