Presentation on theme: "Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 MOTIVATION AND LEARNING."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 MOTIVATION AND LEARNING
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 VIEWS OF MOTIVATION Behaviourist Expectancy theories Needs theories Self-perception and self-worth theories Learned helplessness Social theories Significant learning
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 BEHAVIOURISM A particular stimulus provokes a particular response. Behaviour that is positively reinforced is learned. Repetition and rote lead to learning. Learning is largely extrinsic. Negative reinforcement leads to forgetting. Lack of repetition leads to extinction. Learning is conditioned behaviour. Learning is evidenced in observable behaviour. Learners can be programmed; it is robotic.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 EXPECTANCY THEORIES Motivation for learning (M) is a function of the expectancies and likelihood of success by the learner (E) and the value that the learner attributes to the goals and outcomes of the learning (V). M = f (E,V). The amount of effort people expend on an activity is a function of the degree of expectancy that they have that a particular activity will lead to better performance, rewards and meeting their own desired objectives.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 NEEDS THEORIES Learning is a humanistic activity, engaging all aspects of the person’s make-up. Learners have needs which must be met in a hierarchy. Lower order needs must be satisfied before higher order needs can be met. Self-esteem and self-actualisation are high in the hierarchy. Physical, security and emotional needs precede cognitive needs.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 Under- standing and knowledge Self-actualisation Self-esteem Love and belonging Safety Physiological The Maslow Hierachy of Needs
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 SELF-PERCEPTION AND SELF-WORTH Learning is effective if self-esteem and self-worth are high and deserved. Low self-esteem and self-worth are major barriers to effective motivation and learning. Self-esteem and self-worth are linked to the degree control that learners have over their learning. Learners must experience success and a sense of achievement. Learners must be given rich and positive feedback; it is a sign of respect for the learners.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS Learned helplessness is related to loss of control over one’s learning. Learned helplessness occurs when we feel there is no response to a situation we can make to change the course of events, even if we exert maximum effort. Learned helplessness is a consequence of taught dependency, obedience, passive learning, compliance and docility, didactic and irrelevant teaching. Over-emphasis on rewards and punishments (behaviourism) can lead to learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is a motivational problem. Teachers cause learned helplessness. Learned helplessness results from being trained to be locked into a system.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 SYMPTOMS OF HELPLESSNESS Lowered initiation of voluntary responses. Negative cognitive set (self-reproach and guilt and tendency to underestimate their effectiveness). Passivity. Lack of self-confidence and feeling hopeless. Poor problem solving. Wandering attention. Poor social skills. Learned helpless children are extrinsically motivated and not so much intrinsically motivated because of their failures. A child suffering from learned helplessness eventually gives up. You only get noticed or attention if you fail.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 SOCIAL THEORIES The social learning environment is highly significant. Collaborative learning is highly effective. Higher order cognition is motivating, and is socially learned and transmitted. Cognitive, behavioural and environmental factors constantly interact to promote motivation and learning. Students model their learning on their observation of other learners. Effective learning is interactive. Peer group behaviour affects learning significantly.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 SIGNIFICANT LEARNING Motivation requires personal involvement, interest and commitment. Learning is self-initiated. Learning makes a difference to the ‘whole person’. The learner is involved in the evaluation of learning. Effective teachers must inquire about the significance of the learning for the learner. The teacher, as a ‘significant other’, must be a model of ongoing and effective learning. Learners must be made to feel valued.
Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004 KEY IMPLICATIONS Motivation is a central feature of effective teaching and learning. Motivation is neglected in Macau schools and needs to be addressed a lot more. Make motivation intrinsic; extrinsic motivation risks killing longer-term and deeper, intrinsic motivation. Motivation increases when significant, real-world, social and collaborative learning takes place. Reduce behaviourism, increase self-worth, self- esteem and collaborative learning. Increase student autonomy. Break learned helplessness.