ReinforcementPunishment Positive contingency Negative contingency Chocolate BarElectric Shock Excused from Chores No TV privileges – omission training Effect on Behavior (passive avoidance) (active avoidance)
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance Light Shock ( = Pavlovian Conditioning) -Light elicits fear Shuttling Reduction of Fear (= negative reinforcement)
Is the termination of a shock- associated CS reinforcing? Pavlovian Conditioning Tone Shock Phase 1Phase2 Escape (no shocks) Shuttling turns off Tone
Fear in Active Avoidance Phase 1Phase 2 Active avoidance training Does avoidance CS suppress lever pressing? Fear of the CS declines with extensive avoidance training
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance Light Shock ( = Pavlovian Conditioning) -Light elicits fear Shuttling Reduction of Fear (= negative reinforcement) What should happen with extensive training?
Learned Helplessness Paradigm “Triadic” Design Group A: Escapable Shock Group B: Yoked Inescapable Shock Group C: Exposure to apparatus only Phase 1Phase 2 Escape/Avoidance training (For Group A shock can be terminated by rotating a wheel.)
Possible Explanations Learned Helplessness: Organisms learn that their behavior is ineffectual Poverty of activity: inescapable shock reduces the variability in behavior that is so crucial for operant conditioning Inattention: animals stop attending to their own behavior
Effects of Marking Inescapable shock escapable shock Marking group
Learned Helplessness in the Spinal Cord? Grau and Colleagues Operant Procedure: Shock administered whenever leg is extended. Spinal cord learns to keep leg flexed to avoid shock. Learned Helplessness: Experience of uncontrollable legshock (yoked group) prevents subsequent avoidance learning with controllable shock
LH in Humans LH produced by… insoluble math or logic problems living in a crowded dorm
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