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Analyze this image below….. How does it relate to the Protestant Reformation?

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Presentation on theme: "Analyze this image below….. How does it relate to the Protestant Reformation?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyze this image below….. How does it relate to the Protestant Reformation?

2 The Age of Reformations English & Catholic

3 The English Reformation

4 The Henrician Reformation King Henry VIII “Monarchical Reformation” Six Articles Six wives “Defender of the Faith”  not a radical break re liturgy, dress, etc. –Janz, p. 287

5 Edward VI Son of Jane Seymour Ascends throne at age 13 Protestant Book of Common Prayer (1542) Dies of tuberculosis

6 Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary” Daughter of Catherine of Aragon Rigid Catholic Advised by Cardinal Reginald Pole Dies of cancer

7 Elizabeth I Childhood & education Religious Reform Diplomacy vs. Spain & Ireland Cultural, Intellectual, Artistic accomplishments at Court

8 Young Elizabeth Daughter of Anne Boleyn Studied w/ Roger Ascham Linguist; classical curriculum; Prot. Training Haughty, intelligent, austere, frugal, indecisive Humanist? feminist? Observed Roman Cath’sm under Mary Ascends to throne Nov. 1558

9 Elizabethan Settlement Seeks outward conformity and loyalty to monarchy, not “windows into men’s souls.” Her own beliefs are hidden: »perhaps “a conservative, antipapal compound of Augustinianism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism, tempered with classical Stoicism.” (N. Jones) Establishes a hybrid faith, “midway between Rome & Geneva” Act of Supremacy (1559)  “Supreme Governor” Act of Uniformity (1559)  Book of Common Prayer Thirty-Nine Articles spells out theology

10 Elizabethan Settlement II THE ORDER FOR THE ADMINISTRACION OF THE LORDES SUPPER, OR HOLYE COMMUNION. SO many as entend to be partakers of the holye Communion, shall sygnifye theyr names to the Curate over nyghte, or els in the morning, afore the begynninge of mornynge prayer, or immediatly after. And yf any of those be an open and notorious evyll lyver, so that the congregacion by hym is offended, or have done anye wronge to his neyghbours, by woord or deede: The Curate havinge knowledge thereof, shall call hym, and advertyse him, in anye wyse not to presume to the Lordes Table, untyll he have openly declared hymselfe to have truely repented, and amended hys former naughtye lyfe, that the congregacion maye thereby be satisfyed, whyche afore were offended: and that he have recompensed the parties, whome he hathe done wronge unto, or at the least declare hym selfe to be in full purpose so to doe, as soone as he conveniently maye.

11 Elizabethan Settlement: Objectors Both Catholics and Protestants object to Elizabeth’s middle position: Pius V excommunicates her; Puritans & Presbyterians seek religious freedom/theocracy elsewhere

12 Christian Churches in Europe in the mid-Sixteenth Century

13 Pre-Reformation Reformers (Internal) Catherine of Siena (b. 1347; d. 1380) –Mystic, Dominican nun –Encouraged the pope to return to Rome from Avignon and supported Roman pope in Great Schism –Emphasized love, prayer, penance, devotion, and service to others Fra Savonarola (b. 1452 ; d. 1498) –Dominican preacher and “prophet” at Florence –Condemned Florentines’ “pagan pastimes” and the corruption at the Vatican –Burned at the stake

14 Pre-Reformation Reformers (Internal) Erasmus of Rotterdam (b. 1466 ; d. 1536) –Dutch humanist from the Northern Renaissance. –One of top three intellectuals in Western Europe –Former monk –Criticized corruption of clergy through writing (In Praise of Folly) –Considered indulgences a cheat –Disagreed with Protestants

15 Pre-Reformation Reformers (External) John Wycliffe (b. Early 14 th century; d. 1384) –“Morning Star of the Reformation” –Professor of Sacred Scriptures at the U. of Oxford in England –Taught against transubstantiation, monastic rules, supremacy of RCC, and the “inflated” role of pope Jan Hus (b. 1372 ; d. 1415) –Bohemian priest and professor of theology –Denounced pope and cardinals; challenged belief that the Roman Church was “Christ’s chosen”; taught against transubstantiation; and advocated the laity receiving both elements of the Eucharistic meal –Burned at the stake in 1415

16 Consilium de emendanda ecclesiae (1537) Cardinals Gasparo Contarini & Paolo Carafa Questions to Discuss: –Identify 3-5 concerns raised by the cardinals in this document –How do these concerns compare with those of Luther, and with the primary sources in Ch. 12 of Wiesner?

17 Capuchin Friars Franciscans founded in 12 th c. by St. Francis Capuchins are founded 1528 “capuccio” = hood Capuchins = extra- strict Total abstinence Missionary work 3 Capuchins meditating (1714)

18 Responses of the Catholic Church to Reform movements Re-examine Catholic beliefs and practices Institute reforms of beliefs and practices where needed Reinvigorate the Catholic community Where necessary, use force to re-impose Catholicism among the population E.g., Council of Trent, Index, Inquisition, Jesuits

19 The Council of Trent Met 1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63 Reaffirmed several of the doctrines criticized by Luther, including –Justification by faith and works –The efficacy of the seven sacraments –Priesthood is a special state –clerical celibacy –Confession and absolution –Transubstantiation

20 –Scripture and church tradition are equal in shaping Catholic faith –The Latin bible is the only legitimate version –denied private judgment as a legitimate basis of belief –legitimacy of the doctrine of indulgences (although the practice was reformed) –Latin worship –veneration of the saints and the Virgin, efficacy of pilgrimages The Council of Trent’s definitions of Catholicism and Catholic practice were maintained until the Vatican II conference of the 1960’s

21 A contemporary illustration of the Council of Trent

22 The “Index auctorum et librorum prohibitorum” First published in 1557, later adopted by the Council of Trent A list of books and authors the reading of which was forbidden to Catholics Continued until 1966 Included the obvious (Calvin, Machiavelli) and the not so obvious (Abelard, Erasmus)


24 Jesuits: reinvigorating Catholicism Arose in Spain, perhaps the most devoutly Catholic country in Europe Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) Monastic order established by the Pope in 1540 –Jesuits pursued life “in the world” rather than the cloister “Soldiers of the church”: militant crusaders for Catholicism and the Papacy –under direct control of the Pope –Unquestioning obedience: “If the church teaches to be black what the eye sees as white, the mind will believe it to be black”

25 Emphasized education in order to combat well-educated Protestant theologians –The “Catholic schoolmasters of Europe” –Particular emphasis on teaching upper- and middle-class boys, and especially the ruling classes –taught gentlemanly refinements and secular knowledge as well as religion Because of their positions as royal tutors, they often became very powerful in Catholic courts –often suspect because of a possible conflict with their role as the “shock troops” of the Pope


27 The Inquisition(s) Not new to the 16th century –Inquisitions had been established throughout the middle ages to deal with various heretical movements –generally run by either the Dominicans or the Franciscans –“The Name of the Rose”: a depiction of an early 14th century Inquisition

28 The Spanish Inquisition, c. 1480 Reconquista: the reconquest of Spain by the Spanish Christian community As Spain was re-Christianized, Moslem and Jewish residents either left or converted to Catholicism –“Moriscos”: former Moslems and their descendants –“Marranos”: former Jews and their descendants The Spanish Inquisition (operating in Spain) focused on these two populations

29 Auto da Fe

30 Religions in Europe

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