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1 Visit http://padlet. com/muirheap/actfl14 Introduce yourself Visit Introduce yourself. If you’d like, take a selfie to include as well.
2 @PabloMuirhead #actfl14 firstname.lastname@example.org Developing Global Competence: Integrating Culture and Language Development ACTFL – San Antonio@PabloMuirhead#actfl14IntroMartha is the (TITLE) of the Milwaukee YMCAShe is ….She heads…This will be a very interactive and sensitive honest discussion. A trained facilitator has been placed at each table to ensure participation.PRE-WORK- (1)Who took the Harvard Test on Bias-raise hands? Were you surprised at the results?(2)Did you read Peggy McIntosh’s “ White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”” which encourages andWhite students to investigate their experiences with racism.(3)Responses from question-”How would your life be different if you were another race”? “ Have you experienced oppression or were denied an opportunity or experience based on gender”? – READ examples they handed in
3 COMPETENCE among our students FROM the PERSONALConnection betweenCULTURE & LANGUAGEConceptualizationof cultureto thePROFESSIONALDeveloping GLOBALCOMPETENCE among our students
4 World-Readiness Standards Morning ScheduleWorld-Readiness StandardsConcept of CultureBreakStarting with SelfLunch
5 Afternoon SchedulePutting it into actionBreakAssessing + more
9 The United States must educate students who are equipped linguistically and culturally to communicate successfully in a pluralistic American society and abroad.National Standards Project
10 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful COMMUNICATIONTo study another language andculture gives one the powerfulkey to successful communication:knowing how, when,and whyto say what to whom.
12 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful GLOBAL COMPETENCETo study another language andculture gives one the powerfulkey to successful communication:knowing how, when,and whyto say what to whom.
13 WORLD-READINESS STANDARDS FOR LEARNING LANGUAGES SOURCE:
14 CommunicationCommunicate effectively in more than one language in order to function in a variety of situations and for multiple purposes.SOURCE:
15 Communication INTERPERSONAL Learners interact and negotiate meaning in spoken, signed, or written conversations to share information, reactions, feelings, and opinions.INTERPRETIVE Learners understand, interpret, and analyze what is heard, read, or viewed on a variety of topics.PRESENTATIONALLearners present information, concepts, and ideas to inform, explain, persuade, and narrate on a variety of topics using appropriate media and adaptingSOURCE:
16 Interact with cultural competence and understanding. CulturesInteract with cultural competence and understanding.SOURCE:
17 RELATING CULTURAL PRACTICES RELATING CULTURAL PRODUCTS CulturesRELATING CULTURAL PRACTICESTO PERSPECTIVESLearners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures studied.RELATING CULTURAL PRODUCTSLearners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures studied.SOURCE:
18 ConnectionsConnect with other disciplines and acquire information and diverse perspectives in order to use the language to function in academic and career-related situationsSOURCE:
19 ACQUIRING INFORMATION AND DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES ConnectionsMAKING CONNECTIONSLearners build, reinforce, and expand their knowledge of other disciplines while using the language to solve problems creatively.ACQUIRING INFORMATION AND DIVERSE PERSPECTIVESLearners access and evaluate information and diverse perspectives that are available through the language and its cultures.SOURCE:
20 ComparisonsDevelop insight into the nature of language and culture in order to interact with cultural competence.SOURCE:
21 ComparisonsLANGUAGELearners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own.CULTURALLearners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.SOURCE:
22 CommunitiesCommunicate and interact with cultural competence in order to participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world.SOURCE:
23 SCHOOL AND GLOBAL COMMUNITIES Learners use the language both within and beyond the classroom to interact and collaborate in their community and the globalized world.LIFELONG LEARNINGLearners set goals and reflect on their progress in using languages for enjoyment, enrichment, and advancement.SOURCE:
24 WORLD-READINESS STANDARDS FOR LEARNING LANGUAGES SOURCE:
26 CULTURE Take a moment and write down your understanding of culture. Hold on to it.You’ll be sharing it in groups in just a moment.
27 How do you list your birthdate? orIs one way better than the other?Heck no, that’s the point.
28 Write your birthdate (month, year), on your dry-erase board, in the format most commonly used outside of the U.S. Then form a semicircle chronologically (not by year, which you can make up) SILENTLY. ENCOURAGEMOVEMENT
29 Definition of CultureIn groups, you have a few minutes to develop your collective definition of culture. Be prepared to share your definition with the group.
30 Culture is… … tantamount to perspective … products and practices … intertwined with issues of power
32 In other words…“Culture is a fluctuating embodiment of a group’s products, practices and perspectives. Inseparable from language, culture is also impacted by issues of power as it can be used to marginalize or privilege.”Muirhead, P. (2009). Rethinking culture: Toward a pedagogy of possibility in world language education. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 6(4),Pablo Muirhead
35 Activity based on the iceberg model Place the following aspects of culture either above or below the waterClothingViews on equalityReligious beliefsPersonal distanceWorks of artRules of politenessRelationship with natureDegree of eye contactTime managementMethods of worshipTipping customsGesturesAttitudes towards sexualityConcept of beautyFoodContent prepared by Wendy W. Allen
37 REFLECTIONSWhen you started teaching, what role did culture play in your teaching?What obstacles did you face?How has your treatment of culture evolved since you began teaching?
38 How is culture integrated into the teaching of languages? THENNOWIDEALPure focus on language“Culture” limited to upper-level coursework (through literature)Recognition of importance of cultureStruggle to make it natural part at all levelsMoving toward deeper understanding of cultureSubconsciously infusing culture in lessonsInextricable link between culture and language visible in classroomsStudents gain multiple perspectives that help them challenge societal injustices
39 New ACTFL Book Words and Actions: Teaching Languages Through the Lens of Social JusticeCo-authored by Cassandra Glynn, Concordia College,Pamela Wesely, University of Iowa, and Beth Wassell, Rowan University
40 Culture in the World Language Classroom: A Multiple Case Study Four teachers3 French and 1 SpanishKnown for integrating language and cultureShared qualities among the 2 successful teachers for making this a more seamless connection
41 Developer of Intercultural Communicative Competence Recognizes this as a gradual processMoves beyond viewing “other” cultures from the outside in, but rather the inside out
42 Seeks Cultural & Linguistic Legitimacy Decenters dominant ways of viewing the worldLegitimizes traditionally dominated cultures and nonstandard language varietiesPresents cultural perspectives from traditionally marginalized groups
43 Conscienticized Reflective Being Recognizes political nature of schoolingCreates an environment where discrimination is challengedThematic approaches
44 Having a single cultural perspective. AVOID BEINGCULTURE BOUNDHaving a single cultural perspective.Not being able to adopt different points of view.
45 Starting with SELF Me? Have culture? Really!?!? What does that mean? How does my culture inform my behavior and the way I view the world?
46 Unspoken RulesRead the unspoken rules of behavior associated with your culture.Take on the role of someone from this culture when speaking to others but DO NOT share this information with others.THEN, get to know several people by…Introducing yourselves.Talking about your roles as language educators.Sharing the impact of your intercultural immersion experiences.
47 First ImpressionsOur subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental.You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.
48 First impressionsOur subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental.You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.
49 Reflections…Chances are… …you and your partner didn’t see the same thing at first. …you may have struggled to see both representations all the time.Fact is……impressions and decisions are made very quickly.…we will gain a bigger picture of issues if we can first suspend judgment.
50 Your Students What popular misconceptions do your students have? What challenges do you have to help them overcome?
51 Bennett Model Experience of Difference Development of Intercultural Sensitivity DenialDefenseMinimizationAcceptanceAdaptationIntegrationETHNOCENTRICSTAGESETHNORELATIVESTAGESLange, D. L. (1999). Planning for and using the new national culture standards. In J. K. Phillips & R.K. Terry (Eds.), Foreign language standards: Linking research, theories, and practices (pp. 57135). Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company.
52 I haven’t left my little bubble yet… DENIALIndividual does not perceive cultural differences, or avoids them.Focus on PRODUCTSETHNOCENTRICSTAGES
53 Reflect on own cultures There “they” go speaking Mexican again.DEFENSEReflect on own culturesIndividual demonstrates intolerance toward differences.ETHNOCENTRICSTAGES
54 increase contact with cultures studied I like to think of myself as color blind. I don’t see a person’s race.MINIMIZATIONIndividual downplaysdifferences and takes on belief that everyone is the same.increase contact with cultures studiedETHNOCENTRICSTAGES
55 comparisons & contrasts I don’t understand but I’m okay with that and am open to learning.comparisons & contrastsACCEPTANCEIndividual begins to value the richness that cultures offer.ETHNORELATIVESTAGES
56 tolerate greater ambiguity I see things differently now and can better understand why others feel the way they do.ADAPTATIONIndividual begins to develop other perspectives and skills to get along better with “others”.tolerate greater ambiguityETHNORELATIVESTAGES
57 challenge societal injustices I have acquired various lenses through which to understand the world.INTEGRATION\Individual is able to view the world from multiple perspectives.challenge societal injusticesETHNORELATIVESTAGES
58 Reflecting on these stages, prepare to answer some questions. DenialDefenseMinimizationAcceptanceAdaptationIntegrationETHNOCENTRICSTAGESETHNORELATIVESTAGES
59 ANSWER THESE TWO POLL QUESTIONS https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/yIu1qZhMQibGRCW/webhttps://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/LTczODQ5Njcy/web
60 Harvard Hidden-Bias Tests Excellent resource for self- reflection. Multiple tests are available to measure your subconscious. Find at
61 Putting it into practice How might use these activities in class?Remember that reflecting on one’s own culture is an important first step.
62 Ethnography of the Naciremans Read alone or in a group.Article is at the end of the packet.
63 Would you like to live among the Naciremans? What might take some getting used to?What makes you nervous?What sounds interesting?What do you look forward to?What questions do you have?
67 Extended conversation at table during and after a meal PRACTICE:Extended conversation at table during and after a mealPRODUCTS:What products would you associate with this practice?PERSPECTIVES:What perspectives would you associate with this practice?
68 What products do you associate with this? PERSPECTIVES: PRACTICE:GemütlichkeitPRODUCTS:What products do you associate with this?PERSPECTIVES:What perspectives do you associate with this?
75 REFLECTIONSWhy does reaching perspectives seem so elusive at times for us?What can we do to move from products and practices to perspectives?
76 PRACTICE PRODUCTS PERSPECTIVES Working in small teams, identify a product or practice that you teach. Then consider the perspectives that can be gained from these products and practices.PRACTICEPRODUCTSPERSPECTIVES
78 REFLECTIONS What book do you think she was using? What chapter do you think she is in?Does she seem wedded to a text?What was she effective at doing?Describe what modes of language her students demonstrated.What were students able to do?
79 Teaching Foreign Language Video Library Workshops Workshop on Culture featuring Professor Alvino Fantini
80 Balance between content and process is key High-ChallengeContentLearner LeavesLearner Acquires KnowledgeHigh-ChallengeProcessLow-ChallengeProcessLearner Develops SkillsLearner RestsLow-ChallengeContentThe Bennett Model (as cited by Lange, 1999, p. 76)
81 LEARNER ACQUIRES KNOWLEDGE LOW-CHALLENGE PROCESSHIGH-CHALLENGE CONTENTLectureFilmsGroups or pairsSongs, games, or TPRCloze activities,Multiple choiceResearch projectsRoutine activitiesMatching or sorting exercisesReadingPoliticsHomophobiaReligionSexualityDiversityRacismSocial classJustice / fairness / inequalitiesXenophobiaContent adapted from Wendy W. Allen
82 LEARNER DEVELOPS SKILLS HIGH-CHALLENGE PROCESS LOW-CHALLENGE CONTENT Performance on the stageSimulationsRole playsOral presentationsOpen-endedDebatesVoicing an opinionEssaysWeatherLeisure activitiesFoodCalendarNumbersBig C "products“Courses of studyTravelColorsFamilyContent prepared by Wendy W. Allen
83 EXAMPLE Cultural comparisons/Interpretive Antes de leer. Select four words from the listbelow that you might use in describing theconcept of “family” in your native culture. As aclass, tally the most cited descriptions by nativeculture.___ unidos ___ ayuda financiera___ reuniones frecuentes ___ ayuda moral___ celebraciones religiosas ___ familias grandes___ fiestas familiares ___ familias extendidas___ familias nucleares ___ ayuda médica___ respetar la autoridad ___ inculcar buenos modalesYoung, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
84 Communication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives) EXAMPLECommunication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives)La típica familia hispana no sólo incluye a los padres y sus hijos sino que también incluye a la familia extendida, los tíos, primos, abuelos y compadres. Los individuos de una familia tienen una responsabilidad de ayudar a otros miembros de la familia con problemas financieros,… (fragmento de una lectura)Young, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
85 Example: Communication (interpretive) Reading Comprehension. With a classmate, indicatewhether the following statements are true or false, basedon the reading above. Then, underline the sentence in thereading that supports your answers. Confirm your answerswith two other classmates.La familia es la unidad social más importante en la cultura hispana.La familia hispana se limita a la familia nuclear.Una persona tiene la responsabilidad moral de ayudar a los miembros de su familia.Las familias hispanas no se reúnen frecuentemente.El honor es un valor importante en las familias hispanas.Los niños hispanos no aprenden a respetar la autoridad.Young, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
86 Your TextsThink of examples of products, practices and perspectives in your text(s). Which is more prevalent?
87 “Use the text, don’t be used by it.” And… Textbooks treated as sacred book and not as a resource.Teachers that successfully integrated culture and language did so by following this advice:“Use the text,don’t be used by it.”
88 “If you lead with culture, language will follow.”
89 From the CONCEPTUAL PRACTICAL Pair up with a colleague who teaches a similar course/level as you. Consider the products, practice and perspectives you want your students to take away. Develop an activity, or perhaps a broader unit, to implement in your teaching.
90 STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE at a NOVICE LEVELSituationsFormal vs FamiliarProximity activitiesCloser vs furtherGreetingsCompare & contrast
92 Inviting Atmosphere Take advantage of technology Music in background (e.g. Pandora, Spotify)Slideshow – Have it go on after a few minutes of the computer not being used (pictures from target cultures)Seating arrangementStudent- or teacher-centered?Pedagogical ThemesDocumental – EDUCACION PROHIBIDA
93 Language ExchangeObjective: Create an opportunity for Spanish- dominant English-language learners and Spanish learners to interact on an even playing field. Suggestions: Create the least structure possible so that the exchange flows organically from students. Suggest they bring pictures, scrapbooks, etc. to share with one another. Divide time evenly between English and Spanish. Results: Students are motivated to practice as the context is authentic. Additionally, cultural perspectives can be gained from one another.
94 Useful Strategies Write from a different perspective. Weather from different parts.Interview community members.Activities in the community.Listen to and work with music.Reenact an event.Thematic Units
95 Point somewhere on the target Point somewhere on the target. Based on where you point, you will receive a grade.
99 Build it into your RUBRICS Write a letter to the host family with whom you are about to go stay. Include the following:introduce yourself,tell them about your interests,where you’re from (describe city, weather, etc.),your family/friends,what you’d like to do while you’re abroad, andmake sure to ask them a question, or two, as well. (24 puntos)
100 Outside of Class Activities One per chapter/unitGiven several resourcesEncouraged to seek varietyDocument each activity (Blackboard)Throughout semester culture integrated in coursesExplicit discussions on hidden biases & stages of intercultural communicative competenceWrite Final Reflection PaperSee rubric in
101 Maria’sTake on the role of María and write an home to your mother and sister in Colombia. Help them understand what you are experiencing by comparing and contrasting both your U.S. and your Colombian experiences. Include the following information:What the weather in December is like,What the people are like,What the food is like,Whether they should come live with you in the U.S., andWhat your hopes are for your immediate future (Espero que…).
104 Your Turn Consider the activities you developed earlier. How might you consider assessing students?Work with your partner(s) to discuss.Share your findings with the group.
105 Putting it into Practice Now that we’ve had the day to reflect on the integration of culture, chat with your neighbor about something that you would like to implement in your class & an idea that you would like to further develop.
106 FROM THE PERSONAL“Connection betweenculture & language”“Conceptualizationof culture”TO THEPROFESSIONAL“GlobalCompetence”
107 The work you do as language teachers is vitally important The work you do as language teachers is vitally important. I wish you tremendous success making a more seamless connection between language and culture. Stay in touch.Pablohttps://losmuirhead.wikispaces.com/