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1 Visit http://padlet. com/muirheap/actfl14 Introduce yourself
Visit Introduce yourself. If you’d like, take a selfie to include as well.

2 @PabloMuirhead #actfl14
Developing Global Competence: Integrating Culture and Language Development ACTFL – San Antonio @PabloMuirhead #actfl14 Intro Martha is the (TITLE) of the Milwaukee YMCA She is …. She heads… This will be a very interactive and sensitive honest discussion. A trained facilitator has been placed at each table to ensure participation. PRE-WORK- (1)Who took the Harvard Test on Bias-raise hands? Were you surprised at the results? (2)Did you read Peggy McIntosh’s “ White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”” which encourages and White students to investigate their experiences with racism. (3)Responses from question-”How would your life be different if you were another race”? “ Have you experienced oppression or were denied an opportunity or experience based on gender”? – READ examples they handed in

3 COMPETENCE among our students
FROM the PERSONAL Connection between CULTURE & LANGUAGE Conceptualization of culture to the PROFESSIONAL Developing GLOBAL COMPETENCE among our students

4 World-Readiness Standards
Morning Schedule World-Readiness Standards Concept of Culture Break Starting with Self Lunch

5 Afternoon Schedule Putting it into action Break Assessing + more

6 Why do you teach? What motivates you?



9 The United States must educate students who are equipped linguistically and culturally to communicate successfully in a pluralistic American society and abroad. National Standards Project

10 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful
COMMUNICATION To study another language and culture gives one the powerful key to successful communication: knowing how, when,and why to say what to whom.


12 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful
GLOBAL COMPETENCE To study another language and culture gives one the powerful key to successful communication: knowing how, when,and why to say what to whom.


14 Communication Communicate effectively in more than one language in order to function in a variety of situations and for multiple purposes. SOURCE:

15 Communication INTERPERSONAL
Learners interact and negotiate meaning in spoken, signed, or written conversations to share information, reactions, feelings, and opinions. INTERPRETIVE  Learners understand, interpret, and analyze what is heard, read, or viewed on a variety of topics. PRESENTATIONAL Learners present information, concepts, and ideas to inform, explain, persuade, and narrate on a variety of topics using appropriate media and adapting SOURCE:

16 Interact with cultural competence and understanding.
Cultures Interact with cultural competence and understanding. SOURCE:

Cultures RELATING CULTURAL PRACTICES TO PERSPECTIVES Learners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the cultures studied. RELATING CULTURAL PRODUCTS Learners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the relationship between the products and perspectives of the cultures studied. SOURCE:

18 Connections Connect with other disciplines and acquire information and diverse perspectives in order to use the language to function in academic and career-related situations SOURCE:

Connections MAKING CONNECTIONS Learners build, reinforce, and expand their knowledge of other disciplines while using the language to solve problems creatively. ACQUIRING INFORMATION AND DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES Learners access and evaluate information and diverse perspectives that are available through the language and its cultures. SOURCE:

20 Comparisons Develop insight into the nature of language and culture in order to interact with cultural competence. SOURCE:

21 Comparisons LANGUAGE Learners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own. CULTURAL Learners use the language to investigate, explain, and reflect on the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own. SOURCE:

22 Communities Communicate and interact with cultural competence in order to participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world. SOURCE:

Learners use the language both within and beyond the classroom to interact and collaborate in their community and the globalized world. LIFELONG LEARNING Learners set goals and reflect on their progress in using languages for enjoyment, enrichment, and advancement. SOURCE:


25 Revisiting the concept of

26 CULTURE Take a moment and write down your understanding of culture.
Hold on to it. You’ll be sharing it in groups in just a moment.

27 How do you list your birthdate?
or Is one way better than the other? Heck no, that’s the point.

28 Write your birthdate (month, year), on your dry-erase board, in the format most commonly used outside of the U.S. Then form a semicircle chronologically (not by year, which you can make up) SILENTLY.  ENCOURAGE MOVEMENT

29 Definition of Culture In groups, you have a few minutes to develop your collective definition of culture. Be prepared to share your definition with the group.

30 Culture is… … tantamount to perspective … products and practices
… intertwined with issues of power

31 CULTURE POWER Perspectives Products Practices

32 In other words… “Culture is a fluctuating embodiment of a group’s products, practices and perspectives. Inseparable from language, culture is also impacted by issues of power as it can be used to marginalize or privilege.” Muirhead, P. (2009). Rethinking culture: Toward a pedagogy of possibility in world language education. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 6(4), Pablo Muirhead

33 The Iceberg Metaphor What do you see? and now?


35 Activity based on the iceberg model
Place the following aspects of culture either above or below the water Clothing Views on equality Religious beliefs Personal distance Works of art Rules of politeness Relationship with nature Degree of eye contact Time management Methods of worship Tipping customs Gestures Attitudes towards sexuality Concept of beauty Food Content prepared by Wendy W. Allen


37 REFLECTIONS When you started teaching, what role did culture play in your teaching? What obstacles did you face? How has your treatment of culture evolved since you began teaching?

38 How is culture integrated into the teaching of languages?
THEN NOW IDEAL Pure focus on language “Culture” limited to upper-level coursework (through literature) Recognition of importance of culture Struggle to make it natural part at all levels Moving toward deeper understanding of culture Subconsciously infusing culture in lessons Inextricable link between culture and language visible in classrooms Students gain multiple perspectives that help them challenge societal injustices

39 New ACTFL Book Words and Actions: Teaching Languages Through
the Lens of Social Justice Co-authored by Cassandra Glynn, Concordia College, Pamela Wesely, University of Iowa, and Beth Wassell, Rowan University

40 Culture in the World Language Classroom: A Multiple Case Study
Four teachers 3 French and 1 Spanish Known for integrating language and culture Shared qualities among the 2 successful teachers for making this a more seamless connection

41 Developer of Intercultural Communicative Competence
Recognizes this as a gradual process Moves beyond viewing “other” cultures from the outside in, but rather the inside out

42 Seeks Cultural & Linguistic Legitimacy
Decenters dominant ways of viewing the world Legitimizes traditionally dominated cultures and nonstandard language varieties Presents cultural perspectives from traditionally marginalized groups

43 Conscienticized Reflective Being
Recognizes political nature of schooling Creates an environment where discrimination is challenged Thematic approaches

44 Having a single cultural perspective.
AVOID BEING CULTURE BOUND Having a single cultural perspective. Not being able to adopt different points of view.

45 Starting with SELF Me? Have culture? Really!?!? What does that mean?
How does my culture inform my behavior and the way I view the world?

46 Unspoken Rules Read the unspoken rules of behavior associated with your culture. Take on the role of someone from this culture when speaking to others but DO NOT share this information with others. THEN, get to know several people by… Introducing yourselves. Talking about your roles as language educators. Sharing the impact of your intercultural immersion experiences.

47 First Impressions Our subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental. You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.

48 First impressions Our subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental. You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.

49 Reflections… Chances are… …you and your partner didn’t see the same thing at first. …you may have struggled to see both representations all the time. Fact is… …impressions and decisions are made very quickly. …we will gain a bigger picture of issues if we can first suspend judgment.

50 Your Students What popular misconceptions do your students have?
What challenges do you have to help them overcome?

51 Bennett Model Experience of Difference Development of Intercultural Sensitivity
Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES Lange, D. L. (1999). Planning for and using the new national culture standards. In J. K. Phillips & R. K. Terry (Eds.), Foreign language standards: Linking research, theories, and practices (pp. 57 135). Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company.

52 I haven’t left my little bubble yet…
DENIAL Individual does not perceive cultural differences, or avoids them. Focus on PRODUCTS ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES

53 Reflect on own cultures
There “they” go speaking Mexican again. DEFENSE Reflect on own cultures Individual demonstrates intolerance toward differences. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES

54 increase contact with cultures studied
I like to think of myself as color blind. I don’t see a person’s race. MINIMIZATION Individual downplays differences and takes on belief that everyone is the same. increase contact with cultures studied ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES

55 comparisons & contrasts
I don’t understand but I’m okay with that and am open to learning. comparisons & contrasts ACCEPTANCE Individual begins to value the richness that cultures offer. ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

56 tolerate greater ambiguity
I see things differently now and can better understand why others feel the way they do. ADAPTATION Individual begins to develop other perspectives and skills to get along better with “others”. tolerate greater ambiguity ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

57 challenge societal injustices
I have acquired various lenses through which to understand the world. INTEGRATION \ Individual is able to view the world from multiple perspectives. challenge societal injustices ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

58 Reflecting on these stages, prepare to answer some questions.
Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES


60 Harvard Hidden-Bias Tests
Excellent resource for self- reflection. Multiple tests are available to measure your subconscious. Find at

61 Putting it into practice
How might use these activities in class? Remember that reflecting on one’s own culture is an important first step.

62 Ethnography of the Naciremans
Read alone or in a group. Article is at the end of the packet.

63 Would you like to live among the Naciremans?
What might take some getting used to? What makes you nervous? What sounds interesting? What do you look forward to? What questions do you have?




67 Extended conversation at table during and after a meal
PRACTICE: Extended conversation at table during and after a meal PRODUCTS: What products would you associate with this practice? PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives would you associate with this practice?

68 What products do you associate with this? PERSPECTIVES:
PRACTICE: Gemütlichkeit PRODUCTS: What products do you associate with this? PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this?


70 How addresses are written
PRACTICE: How addresses are written PRODUCTS: Letter PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this?

71 What practice do you associate with this?
PRODUCTS: INSHALLAH PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this?


73 PRACTICE: Use of two last names PERSPECTIVES: What cultural perspectives can we gain from this? PRODUCTS: Last names


75 REFLECTIONS Why does reaching perspectives seem so elusive at times for us? What can we do to move from products and practices to perspectives?

Working in small teams, identify a product or practice that you teach. Then consider the perspectives that can be gained from these products and practices. PRACTICE PRODUCTS PERSPECTIVES


78 REFLECTIONS What book do you think she was using?
What chapter do you think she is in? Does she seem wedded to a text? What was she effective at doing? Describe what modes of language her students demonstrated. What were students able to do?

79 Teaching Foreign Language Video Library Workshops
Workshop on Culture featuring Professor Alvino Fantini

80 Balance between content and process is key
High-Challenge Content Learner Leaves Learner Acquires Knowledge High-Challenge Process Low-Challenge Process Learner Develops Skills Learner Rests Low-Challenge Content The Bennett Model (as cited by Lange, 1999, p. 76)

LOW-CHALLENGE PROCESS HIGH-CHALLENGE CONTENT Lecture Films Groups or pairs Songs, games, or TPR Cloze activities, Multiple choice Research projects Routine activities Matching or sorting exercises Reading Politics Homophobia Religion Sexuality Diversity Racism Social class Justice / fairness / inequalities Xenophobia Content adapted from Wendy W. Allen

Performance on the stage Simulations Role plays Oral presentations Open-ended Debates Voicing an opinion Essays Weather Leisure activities Food Calendar Numbers Big C "products“ Courses of study Travel Colors Family Content prepared by Wendy W. Allen

83 EXAMPLE Cultural comparisons/Interpretive
Antes de leer. Select four words from the list below that you might use in describing the concept of “family” in your native culture. As a class, tally the most cited descriptions by native culture. ___ unidos ___ ayuda financiera ___ reuniones frecuentes ___ ayuda moral ___ celebraciones religiosas ___ familias grandes ___ fiestas familiares ___ familias extendidas ___ familias nucleares ___ ayuda médica ___ respetar la autoridad ___ inculcar buenos modales Young, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

84 Communication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives)
EXAMPLE Communication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives) La típica familia hispana no sólo incluye a los padres y sus hijos sino que también incluye a la familia extendida, los tíos, primos, abuelos y compadres. Los individuos de una familia tienen una responsabilidad de ayudar a otros miembros de la familia con problemas financieros,… (fragmento de una lectura) Young, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

85 Example: Communication (interpretive)
Reading Comprehension. With a classmate, indicate whether the following statements are true or false, based on the reading above. Then, underline the sentence in the reading that supports your answers. Confirm your answers with two other classmates. La familia es la unidad social más importante en la cultura hispana. La familia hispana se limita a la familia nuclear. Una persona tiene la responsabilidad moral de ayudar a los miembros de su familia. Las familias hispanas no se reúnen frecuentemente. El honor es un valor importante en las familias hispanas. Los niños hispanos no aprenden a respetar la autoridad. Young, D. J., Berne, J., Muirhead, P., & Montoya, C. (2011). ¡Vívelo! Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

86 Your Texts Think of examples of products, practices and perspectives in your text(s). Which is more prevalent?

87 “Use the text, don’t be used by it.” And…
Textbooks treated as sacred book and not as a resource. Teachers that successfully integrated culture and language did so by following this advice: “Use the text, don’t be used by it.”

88 “If you lead with culture, language will follow.”

Pair up with a colleague who teaches a similar course/level as you. Consider the products, practice and perspectives you want your students to take away. Develop an activity, or perhaps a broader unit, to implement in your teaching.

at a NOVICE LEVEL Situations Formal vs Familiar Proximity activities Closer vs further Greetings Compare & contrast

91 Riqueza Lingüística

92 Inviting Atmosphere Take advantage of technology
Music in background (e.g. Pandora, Spotify) Slideshow – Have it go on after a few minutes of the computer not being used (pictures from target cultures) Seating arrangement Student- or teacher-centered? Pedagogical Themes Documental – EDUCACION PROHIBIDA

93 Language Exchange Objective: Create an opportunity for Spanish- dominant English-language learners and Spanish learners to interact on an even playing field. Suggestions: Create the least structure possible so that the exchange flows organically from students. Suggest they bring pictures, scrapbooks, etc. to share with one another. Divide time evenly between English and Spanish. Results: Students are motivated to practice as the context is authentic. Additionally, cultural perspectives can be gained from one another.

94 Useful Strategies Write from a different perspective.
Weather from different parts. Interview community members. Activities in the community. Listen to and work with music. Reenact an event. Thematic Units

95 Point somewhere on the target
Point somewhere on the target. Based on where you point, you will receive a grade.

96 B+ C+ ? F A C- B- A- C B D D+

97 Rubrics Help We often inherently know the difference between an A and a B-. Do our students? Clear rubrics help students target their progress, and provide a roadmap to success.


99 Build it into your RUBRICS
Write a letter to the host family with whom you are about to go stay. Include the following: introduce yourself, tell them about your interests, where you’re from (describe city, weather, etc.), your family/friends, what you’d like to do while you’re abroad, and make sure to ask them a question, or two, as well. (24 puntos)

100 Outside of Class Activities
One per chapter/unit Given several resources Encouraged to seek variety Document each activity (Blackboard) Throughout semester culture integrated in courses Explicit discussions on hidden biases & stages of intercultural communicative competence Write Final Reflection Paper See rubric in

101 Maria’s Take on the role of María and write an home to your mother and sister in Colombia. Help them understand what you are experiencing by comparing and contrasting both your U.S. and your Colombian experiences. Include the following information: What the weather in December is like, What the people are like, What the food is like, Whether they should come live with you in the U.S., and What your hopes are for your immediate future (Espero que…).


103 Intercultural Communicative Competence

104 Your Turn Consider the activities you developed earlier.
How might you consider assessing students? Work with your partner(s) to discuss. Share your findings with the group.

105 Putting it into Practice
Now that we’ve had the day to reflect on the integration of culture, chat with your neighbor about something that you would like to implement in your class & an idea that you would like to further develop.

106 FROM THE PERSONAL “Connection between culture & language” “Conceptualization of culture” TO THE PROFESSIONAL “Global Competence”

107 The work you do as language teachers is vitally important
The work you do as language teachers is vitally important. I wish you tremendous success making a more seamless connection between language and culture. Stay in touch. Pablo

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