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Machine Programming – Procedures and IA32 Stack CENG334: Introduction to Operating Systems Instructor: Erol Sahin Acknowledgement: Most of the slides are.

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Presentation on theme: "Machine Programming – Procedures and IA32 Stack CENG334: Introduction to Operating Systems Instructor: Erol Sahin Acknowledgement: Most of the slides are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Machine Programming – Procedures and IA32 Stack CENG334: Introduction to Operating Systems Instructor: Erol Sahin Acknowledgement: Most of the slides are adapted from the ones prepared by R.E. Bryant, D.R. O’Hallaron of Carnegie-Mellon Univ.

2 Integer Registers (IA32) %eax %ecx %edx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp %ax %cx %dx %bx %si %di %sp %bp %ah %ch %dh %bh %al %cl %dl %bl 16-bit virtual registers (backwards compatibility) general purpose accumulate counter data base source index destination index stack pointer base pointer Origin (mostly obsolete)

3 Moving Data: IA32 Moving Data  movx Source, Dest  x in { b, w, l }  movl Source, Dest: Move 4-byte “long word”  movw Source, Dest: Move 2-byte “word”  movb Source, Dest: Move 1-byte “byte” Lots of these in typical code %eax %ecx %edx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp

4 Moving Data: IA32 Moving Data movl Source, Dest: Operand Types  Immediate: Constant integer data  Example: $0x400, $-533  Like C constant, but prefixed with ‘$’  Encoded with 1, 2, or 4 bytes  Register: One of 8 integer registers  Example: %eax, %edx  But %esp and %ebp reserved for special use  Others have special uses for particular instructions  Memory: 4 consecutive bytes of memory at address given by register  Simplest example: (%eax)  Various other “address modes” %eax %ecx %edx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp

5 movl Operand Combinations Cannot do memory-memory transfer with a single instruction movl Imm Reg Mem Reg Mem Reg Mem Reg SourceDestC Analog movl $0x4,%eaxtemp = 0x4; movl $-147,(%eax)*p = -147; movl %eax,%edxtemp2 = temp1; movl %eax,(%edx)*p = temp; movl (%eax),%edxtemp = *p; Src,Dest

6 Simple Memory Addressing Modes Normal(R)Mem[Reg[R]]  Register R specifies memory address movl (%ecx),%eax DisplacementD(R)Mem[Reg[R]+D]  Register R specifies start of memory region  Constant displacement D specifies offset movl 8(%ebp),%edx

7 Using Simple Addressing Modes void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx movl 12(%ebp),%ecx movl 8(%ebp),%edx movl (%ecx),%eax movl (%edx),%ebx movl %eax,(%edx) movl %ebx,(%ecx) movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret Body Set Up Finish

8 Using Simple Addressing Modes void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx movl 12(%ebp),%ecx movl 8(%ebp),%edx movl (%ecx),%eax movl (%edx),%ebx movl %eax,(%edx) movl %ebx,(%ecx) movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret Body Set Up Finish

9 Understanding Swap void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx Stack (in memory) RegisterValue %ecxyp %edxxp %eaxt1 %ebxt0 yp xp Rtn adr Old % ebp %ebp Offset Old % ebx -4

10 Understanding Swap movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp0x104

11 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp0x104 0x120

12 Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp 0x120 0x104 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx 0x124

13 Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp 0x124 0x120 0x104 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx 456

14 Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp 456 0x124 0x120 0x104 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx 123

15 456 Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset -4 Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp 456 0x124 0x x104 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx

16 Understanding Swap 0x120 0x124 Rtn adr %ebp Offset Address 0x124 0x120 0x11c 0x118 0x114 0x110 0x10c 0x108 0x104 0x100 yp xp %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp 456 0x124 0x120 0x104 movl 12(%ebp),%ecx# ecx = yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx# edx = xp movl (%ecx),%eax# eax = *yp (t1) movl (%edx),%ebx# ebx = *xp (t0) movl %eax,(%edx)# *xp = eax movl %ebx,(%ecx)# *yp = ebx 123

17 Complete Memory Addressing Modes Most General Form D(Rb,Ri,S)Mem[Reg[Rb]+S*Reg[Ri]+ D]  D: Constant “displacement” 1, 2, or 4 bytes  Rb: Base register: Any of 8 integer registers  Ri:Index register: Any, except for %esp  Unlikely you’d use %ebp, either  S: Scale: 1, 2, 4, or 8 (why these numbers?) Special Cases (Rb,Ri)Mem[Reg[Rb]+Reg[Ri]] D(Rb,Ri)Mem[Reg[Rb]+Reg[Ri]+D] (Rb,Ri,S)Mem[Reg[Rb]+S*Reg[Ri]]

18 IA32 Stack Region of memory managed with stack discipline Grows toward lower addresses Register %esp contains lowest stack address = address of “top” element Stack Pointer: %esp Stack Grows Down Increasing Addresses Stack “Top” Stack “Bottom”

19 IA32 Stack: Push pushl Src  Fetch operand at Src  Decrement %esp by 4  Write operand at address given by %esp Stack Grows Down Increasing Addresses Stack “Top” Stack “Bottom” Stack Pointer: %esp -4

20 IA32 Stack: Pop Stack Pointer: %esp Stack Grows Down Increasing Addresses Stack “Top” Stack “Bottom” popl Dest  Read operand at address %esp  Increment %esp by 4  Write operand to Dest +4

21 Procedure Control Flow Use stack to support procedure call and return Procedure call: call label  Push return address on stack  Jump to label Return address:  Address of instruction beyond call  Example from disassembly e:e8 3d call 8048b :50 pushl %eax  Return address = 0x Procedure return: ret  Pop address from stack  Jump to address

22 %esp %eip %esp %eip 0x804854e 0x108 0x10c 0x110 0x104 0x804854e 0x Procedure Call Example 0x108 0x10c 0x x108 call 8048b e:e8 3d call 8048b :50 pushl %eax 0x8048b90 0x104 %eip: program counter

23 %esp %eip 0x104 %esp %eip 0x x104 0x108 0x10c 0x110 0x Procedure Return Example 0x108 0x10c 0x ret :c3 ret 0x108 0x %eip: program counter

24 Stack-Based Languages Languages that support recursion  e.g., C, Pascal, Java  Code must be “Reentrant”  Multiple simultaneous instantiations of single procedure  Need some place to store state of each instantiation  Arguments  Local variables  Return pointer Stack discipline  State for given procedure needed for limited time  From when called to when return  Callee returns before caller does Stack allocated in Frames  state for single procedure instantiation

25 Call Chain Example yoo(…) { who(); } who(…) { amI(); amI(); } amI(…) { amI(); } yoo who amI Example Call Chain amI Procedure amI is recursive

26 Frame for proc Frame Pointer: %ebp Stack Frames Contents  Local variables  Return information  Temporary space Management  Space allocated when enter procedure  “Set-up” code  Deallocated when return  “Finish” code Stack Pointer: %esp Previous Frame Stack “Top”

27 Example yoo(…) { who(); } yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack

28 who(…) { amI(); amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who

29 amI(…) { amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

30 amI(…) { amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

31 amI(…) { amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

32 amI(…) { amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

33 amI(…) { amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

34 who(…) { amI(); amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who

35 amI(…) { } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who amI

36 who(…) { amI(); amI(); } Example yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack who

37 Example yoo(…) { who(); } yoo who amI yoo %ebp %esp Stack

38 IA32/Linux Stack Frame Current Stack Frame (“Top” to Bottom)  “Argument build:” Parameters for function about to call  Local variables If can’t keep in registers  Saved register context  Old frame pointer Caller Stack Frame  Return address  Pushed by call instruction  Arguments for this call Return Addr Saved Registers + Local Variables Argument Build Old %ebp Arguments Caller Frame Frame pointer %ebp Stack pointer %esp

39 Revisiting swap void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } int zip1 = 15213; int zip2 = 91125; void call_swap() { swap(&zip1, &zip2); } call_swap: pushl $zip2# Global Var pushl $zip1# Global Var call swap &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Resulting Stack Calling swap from call_swap

40 Revisiting swap void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx movl 12(%ebp),%ecx movl 8(%ebp),%edx movl (%ecx),%eax movl (%edx),%ebx movl %eax,(%edx) movl %ebx,(%ecx) movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret Body Set Up Finish

41 swap Setup #1 swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx Resulting Stack &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Entering Stack %ebp yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp

42 swap Setup #1 swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Entering Stack %ebp yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp

43 swap Setup #1 swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Entering Stack %ebp yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp Resulting Stack

44 swap Setup #1 swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Entering Stack %ebp yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp

45 swap Setup #1 &zip2 &zip1 Rtn adr %esp Entering Stack %ebp yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp Resulting Stack Old %ebx movl 12(%ebp),%ecx # get yp movl 8(%ebp),%edx # get xp... Offset relative to %ebp

46 swap Finish #1 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp Resulting Stack Old %ebx Observation: Saved and restored register %ebx

47 swap Finish #2 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp Old %ebx

48 swap Finish #2 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp Resulting Stack

49 swap Finish #2 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp

50 swap Finish #3 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret Resulting Stack yp xp Rtn adr %ebp %esp

51 swap Finish #4 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp Rtn adr %ebp %esp

52 swap Finish #4 yp xp Rtn adr Old %ebp %ebp %esp swap’s Stack Old %ebx movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret yp xp %ebp %esp Resulting Stack Observation  Saved & restored register %ebx  Didn’t do so for %eax, %ecx, or %edx

53 Disassembled swap a4 : 80483a4: 55 push %ebp 80483a5: 89 e5 mov %esp,%ebp 80483a7: 53 push %ebx 80483a8: 8b mov 0x8(%ebp),%edx 80483ab: 8b 4d 0c mov 0xc(%ebp),%ecx 80483ae: 8b 1a mov (%edx),%ebx 80483b0: 8b 01 mov (%ecx),%eax 80483b2: mov %eax,(%edx) 80483b4: mov %ebx,(%ecx) 80483b6: 5b pop %ebx 80483b7: c9 leave 80483b8: c3 ret : e8 96 ff ff ff call 80483a e: 8b 45 f8 mov 0xfffffff8(%ebp),%eax Calling Code

54 Register Saving Conventions When procedure yoo calls who :  yoo is the caller  who is the callee Can Register be used for temporary storage?  Contents of register %edx overwritten by who yoo: movl $15213, %edx call who addl %edx, %eax ret who: movl 8(%ebp), %edx addl $91125, %edx ret

55 Register Saving Conventions When procedure yoo calls who :  yoo is the caller  who is the callee Can register be used for temporary storage? Conventions  “Caller Save”  Caller saves temporary in its frame before calling  “Callee Save”  Callee saves temporary in its frame before using

56 IA32/Linux Register Usage %eax, %edx, %ecx  Caller saves prior to call if values are used later %eax  also used to return integer value %ebx, %esi, %edi  Callee saves if wants to use them %esp, %ebp  special %eax %edx %ecx %ebx %esi %edi %esp %ebp Caller-Save Temporaries Callee-Save Temporaries Special

57 Linux Memory Layout Stack  Runtime stack (8MB limit) Heap  Dynamically allocated storage  When call malloc, calloc, new DLLs  Dynamically Linked Libraries  Library routines (e.g., printf, malloc )  Linked into object code when first executed Data  Statically allocated data  E.g., arrays & strings declared in code Text  Executable machine instructions  Read-only Upper 2 hex digits of address Red Hat v. 6.2 ~1920M B memory limit FF BF 7F 3F C Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08

58 Linux Memory Allocation Linked BF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data 08 Some Heap BF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08 More Heap BF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08 Initially BF 7F 3F Stack Text Data 08

59 Text & Stack Example (gdb) break main (gdb) run Breakpoint 1, 0x804856f in main () (gdb) print $esp $3 = (void *) 0xbffffc78 Main  Address 0x804856f should be read 0x f Stack  Address 0xbffffc78 Initially BF 7F 3F Stack Text Data 08

60 Dynamic Linking Example (gdb) print malloc $1 = { } 0x (gdb) run Program exited normally. (gdb) print malloc $2 = {void *(unsigned int)} 0x Initially  Code in text segment that invokes dynamic linker  Address 0x should be read 0x Final  Code in DLL region Linked BF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data 08

61 Memory Allocation Example char big_array[1<<24]; /* 16 MB */ char huge_array[1<<28]; /* 256 MB */ int beyond; char *p1, *p2, *p3, *p4; int useless() { return 0; } int main() { p1 = malloc(1 <<28); /* 256 MB */ p2 = malloc(1 << 8); /* 256 B */ p3 = malloc(1 <<28); /* 256 MB */ p4 = malloc(1 << 8); /* 256 B */ /* Some print statements... */ }

62 Example Addresses $esp0xbffffc78 p3 0x500b5008 p1 0x400b4008 Final malloc0x p40x1904a640 p20x1904a538 beyond 0x1904a524 big_array 0x1804a520 huge_array 0x0804a510 main()0x f useless() 0x Initial malloc0x BF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08


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