Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth Jenkins, Ph.D. Health Behavior Coordinator and Clinical Psychologist James A. Haley VA Hospital Member of the International Motivational Interviewing."— Presentation transcript:
Elizabeth Jenkins, Ph.D. Health Behavior Coordinator and Clinical Psychologist James A. Haley VA Hospital Member of the International Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers A TASTE OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
DOES WORKING WITH PEOPLE EVER FEEL LIKE THIS?
What challenges have you encountered clinically when working with individuals who are homeless or at risk for homelessness? What are some problem situations that you see that you’d like to see change? What are some of the barriers to helping veterans engage in change? MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING: GETTING STARTED
A collaborative, person-centered form of guiding [or clinical method] to elicit or strengthen motivation for change By exploring and resolving ambivalence Not just a series of technique but a way of being with people that improves with considerable practice over time Miller and Rollnick, 2009 MI DEFINED
The Keys to Readiness Readiness Confidence Importance
MI provides a useful framework for working with individuals who are experiencing homelessness and/or struggling with substance use, mental illness, and traumatic experiences Within the spirit of MI is an appreciation of the challenges for changing learned behaviors, some of which may have been an important part of survival MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING AND HOMELESSNESS
"People are generally better persuaded by the reasons they have themselves discovered than by those that enter the minds of others...“ Blaise Pascal, Mathematician & Theologian ( ) 7
ORIGINS OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING MI started with Bill Miller While on sabbatical in 1983, he was asked to mentor young psychologists about behavioral treatments for alcohol problems Their questions about his style led him to articulate components that were not part of the behavioral therapy per se From that emerged a conceptual model and clinical guidelines for MI
Differential responses to an individual’s speech using an empathic, person-centered style Focus of attention: evoke and strengthen individual’s verbalized motivations for change Rather than confronting the lack of change, the therapist responds with empathic understanding Based on Miller’s observations that arguing for change tends to evoke further defenses for maintaining the status quo THE MODEL
Motivation for change is elicited from the veteran and not imposed on the veteran. It is the veteran’s task, not the counselors, to articulate and resolve his or her ambivalence. THE SPIRIT OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING Rollnick & Miller, 1995
Draw out vs. implant the right ideas: “What concerns you about your financial situation?” VERSUS “You need to start working.” Allow the freedom NOT to change vs. push for commitment: “How ready are you to change?” VERSUS “If you delay getting sober, you could die.” Collaborate: “What do you think you’ll do?” VERSUS “You’ve got to take your medications.” WHAT IS THE SPIRIT OF MI?
Direct persuasion is not an effective method for resolving ambivalence. The counseling style is generally a quiet and eliciting one. The counselor is directive in helping the veteran to examine and resolve ambivalence. THE SPIRIT OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING Rollnick & Miller, 1995
Readiness to change is not a permanent trait but rather a changing state. The relationship provider-patient relationship is closer to a partnership and less like an expert-recipient relationship. THE SPIRIT OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
CONFRONTATION IS NOT CONSISTENT WITH MI
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS 1.This person OUGHT to (or should WANT to) change. 2.Patients are either motivated or not. If not, there’s nothing we can do for them. 3.Now is the right (only?) time to change. 4.A tough approach is always best. 5.I’m the expert, so he/she should follow my advice. 6.If the person decides not to change, the consultation has failed.
Have veteran voice the argument for change rather than the therapist GUIDING PRINCIPLE OF MI
THERE APPEARS TO BE A SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF MI WITH OTHER TREATMENT METHODS.
What is “change talk”? Study looking at persuasion with confronting vs. reflective listening & differential reinforcement Participants in MI condition verbalized twice as much change talk and ½ as much resistance MI influences change talk, and change talk predicts behavior change MI INFLUENCES CHANGE TALK
WHY DO WE WANT THE REASONS FOR CHANGE TO COME FROM THEM? CHANGE TALK PREDICTS CHANGE!
What is it? The natural inclination we have to make it better for another person What’s the danger? We tell the other person what to do, how to do it, and why they should do it without talking to them and learning what they think It creates resistance in that we move away from the partnering stance of MI and into the expert top down role What to do when you find yourself doing this? Stop and Reset “Mrs. Smith, I realize I have been just lecturing you on how you can deal with your diabetes without learning what you are thinking. Let me back up and hear from you, wherever you would like to start.” 20 PRINCIPALS: THE RIGHTING REFLEX
"Lack of motivation" is often ambivalence; both sides are already within the person If you argue for one side, an ambivalent person is likely to defend the other As a person defends the status quo, the likelihood of change decreases Resist the "righting reflex" - to take up the "good" side of the ambivalence 21 TENETS OF MI: AMBIVALENCE
EAJenkins, 2010 “Righting” Reflex Ambivalence
Appreciate Ambivalence IT IS THE SPIRIT OF MI TO…
Using marijuanaQuitting marijuana Benefits of: Helps me relax Helps with pain My friends and I have fun when we smoke I feel fine Stay healthy Save money Stay out of jail Finish probation I am less likely to die Costs of: Doctor lectures me I am broke Nasty cough Legal problems My friends will think I’m boring My pain will be worse I will feel more anxious APPRECIATE AMBIVALENCE
25 MI IS DANCING RATHER THAN WRESTLING…
26 SO HOW DO WE GUIDE, NUDGE, COLLABORATE WITH INDIVIDUALS TO INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD THAT THEY WILL ENGAGE IN BEHAVIOR CHANGE?
Open ended questions Affirmations Reflective listening Summaries METHODS IMPORTANT TO MI
“What worries you about your current situation?” (disadvantages of status quo) “How would you like your life to be five years from now?” (advantages of change) “What encourages you that you can change if you want to?” (optimism about change) “What would you be willing to try (intention) or what do you think you might do?” OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS
“Thanks for coming on time today” “That’s a good suggestion” “It seems like you’re a spirited and strong person” “You enjoy being happy with other people and making them laugh” “You are clearly a resourceful person to cope with such difficulties for so long” AFFIRMATIONS
Veteran: “I know we made all these goals about my getting out and meeting people, but I’m just not comfortable around other people.” Provider: “Getting the support you need hasn’t been easy.” Veteran: “I just don’t like the way my family talks to me about my drinking.” Interviewer: “You’re annoyed with your family.” Patient: “Yes, it just irritates me how they are always judging me.” REFLECTIVE LISTENING
“These medications the doctor prescribed just make me feel tired and depressed. Why should I take meds that make me feel worse?” HOW MIGHT YOU REFLECT THIS STATEMENT?
“I am never in one place and so it’s hard to check my blood sugars when I’m supposed to.” HOW MIGHT YOU REFLECT THIS STATEMENT?
“Look, it’s not like I’m lazy. I just haven’t found the right job yet. ” HOW MIGHT YOU REFLECT THIS STATEMENT?
Special form of reflective listening Structure: Indicate you’re about to summarize Be selective Note ambivalence & attend to change statements Be concise! End with invitation Use to change directions or ask a key question SUMMARIES
Collaboration: expertise not expert Calling forth: eliciting not telling Control: it is up to the patient to decide Curiosity: not authority THE FOUR C’S OF MI
OARS Evocative questions Importance ruler Pros and cons Elaborating Typical day Querying extremes Looking back and looking forward Exploring goals and values WAYS TO ELICIT CHANGE TALK
A large body of literature shows that MI can directly impact client outcomes Both the relational and technical attributes of MI contribute to outcome Training in MI has been shown to improve clinician performance on MI skills that are themselves related to client outcomes (workshops and coaching combined) IN SUMMARY
Learning MI takes practice and feedback. Starting with a few skills is usually more effective than trying to use every skill you’ve learned at once. There is community training and ongoing coaching available from individuals who are specially trained in MI (MINT). The VA currently offers training in MI through the Mental Health MI roll out. Your local Health Behavior Coordinator may be able to provide requested training as well. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change, Miller and Rollnick, Guilford 2012 Motivational Interviewing in Health Care, Rollnick, Miller, and Butler, Guilford 2007 Ten Things that Motivational Interviewing Is Not, Miller and Rollnick, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 2009, 37, or ext 4963 SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON MI