Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

GEOS 115 Introduction to Oceanography. 2 What is Oceanography? The goal of understanding the oceans through the physical, geological, chemical and biological.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "GEOS 115 Introduction to Oceanography. 2 What is Oceanography? The goal of understanding the oceans through the physical, geological, chemical and biological."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOS 115 Introduction to Oceanography

2 2 What is Oceanography? The goal of understanding the oceans through the physical, geological, chemical and biological sciencesThe goal of understanding the oceans through the physical, geological, chemical and biological sciences The common fields of science involved in the study of the oceans includeThe common fields of science involved in the study of the oceans include Geology Geology Geography Geography Geophysics Geophysics Physics Physics Chemistry Chemistry Geochemistry Geochemistry Mathematics Mathematics Meteorology Meteorology Botany Botany Zoology Zoology

3 3 Geological Oceanography History of the ocean basins History of the ocean basins Plate tectonics Plate tectonics Sediments and rocks of the seafloor Sediments and rocks of the seafloor Coastal/shoreline processes Coastal/shoreline processes Beaches/ Barrier IslandsBeaches/ Barrier Islands DeltasDeltas EstuariesEstuaries ReefsReefs

4 4 Physical Oceanography Currents and circulation Currents and circulation Wave and tidal dynamics Wave and tidal dynamics Meteorology (Ocean-Atmosphere coupling) Meteorology (Ocean-Atmosphere coupling) Heat transferHeat transfer Water cycleWater cycle

5 5 Chemical Oceanography Composition of seawater Composition of seawater Origin of seawater Origin of seawater Interaction between water and other systems Interaction between water and other systems GeologicalGeological BiologicalBiological Effects of river discharge and sea water Effects of river discharge and sea water

6 6 Biological Oceanography Study of marine organisms Study of marine organisms PlanticPlantic Phyto and zooplankton Phyto and zooplankton NekticNektic Marine vertebrates (fish, reptiles) Marine vertebrates (fish, reptiles) BenthicBenthic Sessile and mobile Sessile and mobile Mostly invertebrates and algae and plants Mostly invertebrates and algae and plants Relationship between organisms and the oceanic environment Relationship between organisms and the oceanic environment

7 7 The Nature of Science Systematic process of asking questions and testing answers Systematic process of asking questions and testing answers Gathering data Gathering data Interpreting data Interpreting data Forming tentative answers (hypotheses) Forming tentative answers (hypotheses) Experimenting (manipulating) in nature or laboratory Experimenting (manipulating) in nature or laboratory Based on the assumption that rules that govern nature are immutable Based on the assumption that rules that govern nature are immutable

8 8

9 9 History of Oceanography Paleolithic Paleolithic Development of barbed spears, harpoons, fish hooksDevelopment of barbed spears, harpoons, fish hooks Settlements along coasts (kitchen middens)Settlements along coasts (kitchen middens) Egyptians Egyptians Nets, boatsNets, boats First recorded ocean voyage (Snefru 3200 B.C.E)First recorded ocean voyage (Snefru 3200 B.C.E) First exploration 2750 B.C.E. (Hannu)First exploration 2750 B.C.E. (Hannu) Phoenicians (1200 B.C.E. – 146 B.C.E) Phoenicians (1200 B.C.E. – 146 B.C.E) Trade and commerceTrade and commerce NavyNavy Exploration (circumnavigated Africa 590 B.C.E.)Exploration (circumnavigated Africa 590 B.C.E.)

10 10 Pacific Islanders Migration along SW Pacific 2500 B.C.E. Extensive migrations in 1500 B.C.E. By C.E. Polynesians had colonized the Pacific from New Zealand to Hawaii to Easter Island Navigation Observation of stars Observation of waves, clouds, birds and distinctive land smells Navigational Chart

11 11 The Greeks Herodotus (450 B.C.E.) view of the world Herodotus (450 B.C.E.) view of the world Mediterranean Sea, Europe, Asia and Libya, surrounded by a continuous ocean ThallassaMediterranean Sea, Europe, Asia and Libya, surrounded by a continuous ocean Thallassa Pytheas; sailed to Iceland (325 B.C.E.) and worked out a method of determining latitude Pytheas; sailed to Iceland (325 B.C.E.) and worked out a method of determining latitude Eratosthenes ( B.C.E.), librarian at Alexandria, Egypt, determined the earth’s circumference, also ‘invented’ latitude and longitude Eratosthenes ( B.C.E.), librarian at Alexandria, Egypt, determined the earth’s circumference, also ‘invented’ latitude and longitude 40,000Km (24,840 mi) vs 40,031 Km (24,860 mi)40,000Km (24,840 mi) vs 40,031 Km (24,860 mi)

12 12 The World of Herodotus

13 13 Pytheas- Determining Latitude Measure the angle between the horizon and the North Star, Polaris (a star directly above the North Pole) or the Southern Cross for the southern hemisphere Latitude north of the equator is the angle between the two sightings

14 14 Erastosthenes’ Determination of the Circumference of the Earth

15 15 Hipparchus: Chart with Latitude & Longitude

16 16 The Romans Strabo (63 B.C.E-24 C.E.) observed volcanic activity and concluded that land periodically rose and sank causing the sea to retreat and advance from the continents. He also determined that rivers eroded the continents and brought and deposited sediment to the sea Strabo (63 B.C.E-24 C.E.) observed volcanic activity and concluded that land periodically rose and sank causing the sea to retreat and advance from the continents. He also determined that rivers eroded the continents and brought and deposited sediment to the sea Pliny the Elder (23-79 C.E.) related the phases of the moon to tides as well as reported on the currents through the Strait of Gibraltar Pliny the Elder (23-79 C.E.) related the phases of the moon to tides as well as reported on the currents through the Strait of Gibraltar

17 17 The Romans Ptolemy ( C.E.) produced the first “world” atlas. He introduced regularly spaced lines of latitude and longitude in in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc, but he accepted a circumference of only 29,000 Km for the earth. It established the Roman world view from the British Isles and northern Europe to Asia and Africa. It was a mayor catalyst for exploration in subsequent centuries (i.e. Columbus) Ptolemy ( C.E.) produced the first “world” atlas. He introduced regularly spaced lines of latitude and longitude in in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc, but he accepted a circumference of only 29,000 Km for the earth. It established the Roman world view from the British Isles and northern Europe to Asia and Africa. It was a mayor catalyst for exploration in subsequent centuries (i.e. Columbus) Christianity identified Alexandria's library with paganism and burned it in 415 C.E.; western intellectual development in ocean sciences declined during Dark Ages Christianity identified Alexandria's library with paganism and burned it in 415 C.E.; western intellectual development in ocean sciences declined during Dark Ages

18 18 Ptolemy’s Geographica

19 19 The Middle Ages- The Arabs The Arabs (Moors of North Africa ) The Arabs (Moors of North Africa ) Dominated trade and commerce in the Mediterranean and east after the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity in Europe the Prophet Muhammad encouraged travel even "as far as China" for learning. The wealth of cities depended upon trade. And the faith of Islam asked of the faithful the most powerful of all reasons for travel, the Pilgrimage.Dominated trade and commerce in the Mediterranean and east after the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity in Europe the Prophet Muhammad encouraged travel even "as far as China" for learning. The wealth of cities depended upon trade. And the faith of Islam asked of the faithful the most powerful of all reasons for travel, the Pilgrimage. Employed the Chinese compassEmployed the Chinese compass Invented the astrolabe which was used to read the position of the stars and planetsInvented the astrolabe which was used to read the position of the stars and planets The dhow (sailing vessel) utilized the winds of the monsoons to go north in the summer and south in the winter. Dhows went up and down the coast of East Africa, and from the Red Sea to the "Spice Islands" of Indonesia, and to Southeast AsiaThe dhow (sailing vessel) utilized the winds of the monsoons to go north in the summer and south in the winter. Dhows went up and down the coast of East Africa, and from the Red Sea to the "Spice Islands" of Indonesia, and to Southeast Asia

20 20 The Dhow

21 21 The Middle Ages- The Arabs El-Mas’ude (d. 956), first description of the reversal of the currents due to the seasonal monsoon winds El-Mas’ude (d. 956), first description of the reversal of the currents due to the seasonal monsoon winds Al-Idrisi made a globe or sphere of silver weighing 400 kilograms for the Christian King Roger II of Sicily. Some scholars regard him as the greatest geographer and mapmaker of the Middle Ages. He put together a geographical encyclopedia with many maps Al-Idrisi made a globe or sphere of silver weighing 400 kilograms for the Christian King Roger II of Sicily. Some scholars regard him as the greatest geographer and mapmaker of the Middle Ages. He put together a geographical encyclopedia with many maps Al-Idrisi

22 22 Arab Trade Routes

23 23 The Middle Ages-The Chinese Ming Dynasty 1405 – 1433 significant Chinese contributions Ming Dynasty 1405 – 1433 significant Chinese contributions Invented the compass Invented the compass Zheng commanded a fleet, 317 ships 37,000 men to Indian ocean, Indonesia, around Africa to the Atlantic Zheng commanded a fleet, 317 ships 37,000 men to Indian ocean, Indonesia, around Africa to the Atlantic Chinese made several other inventions including, central rudder, water tight compartments and sophisticated sails on multiple masts. Chinese made several other inventions including, central rudder, water tight compartments and sophisticated sails on multiple masts. Unfortunately contributions ended in 1433 because they believed other cultures could not contribute anything else to them Unfortunately contributions ended in 1433 because they believed other cultures could not contribute anything else to them

24 24 The Middle Ages- The Europeans Increase knowledge in navigation with harbor-finding charts (portolanos) Increase knowledge in navigation with harbor-finding charts (portolanos) The Venerable Bede ( ) illustrated his account of the tides with data from British coast The Venerable Bede ( ) illustrated his account of the tides with data from British coast Abbot Wallingford of St. Albans (1200) followed Bede’s work by collecting tidal data for London (“Flod at London Brigge”) Abbot Wallingford of St. Albans (1200) followed Bede’s work by collecting tidal data for London (“Flod at London Brigge”) By 1300 Europeans had established successful trade routes By 1300 Europeans had established successful trade routes

25 25 The Middle Ages- The Vikings Engaged in extensive exploration, trade and colonization ( ) during a warm period (greenhouse) Engaged in extensive exploration, trade and colonization ( ) during a warm period (greenhouse) Sailed to Iceland in 871, up Russian rivers, through central and eastern Europe and western Asia and to the Mediterranean Sailed to Iceland in 871, up Russian rivers, through central and eastern Europe and western Asia and to the Mediterranean Erik the Red (982) sailed to Greenland Erik the Red (982) sailed to Greenland Leif Eriksson reached North America (Newfoundland) in 1002, founded a colony (Vinland) that lasted until 1020 Leif Eriksson reached North America (Newfoundland) in 1002, founded a colony (Vinland) that lasted until 1020 By the 13 th century climate began to cool again and marked an end of Viking exploration By the 13 th century climate began to cool again and marked an end of Viking exploration

26 26 The Age of Discovery- Portugal Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal ( ), established a naval observatory at Sagres for the teaching of navigation, astronomy and cartography (1450) Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal ( ), established a naval observatory at Sagres for the teaching of navigation, astronomy and cartography (1450) Sent countless expeditions down the west coast of Africa to secure trade routes and establish coloniesSent countless expeditions down the west coast of Africa to secure trade routes and establish colonies Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1487 Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1487 Vasco da Gama, followed Dias and charted the east coast of Africa to India in 1498 Vasco da Gama, followed Dias and charted the east coast of Africa to India in 1498 By 1511 the Portuguese conquered the spice routes had access to the Spice Island and extended trade to China and Japan in 1513 By 1511 the Portuguese conquered the spice routes had access to the Spice Island and extended trade to China and Japan in 1513

27 27

28 28 The Age of Discovery- Spain Christopher Columbus ( ) made 4 voyages west to find a route to the indies. Christopher Columbus ( ) made 4 voyages west to find a route to the indies. On October 12, 1492 he came upon the new world at San Salvador Island, BahamasOn October 12, 1492 he came upon the new world at San Salvador Island, Bahamas Amerigo Vespucci ( ) made several voyages to the new world for Spain and Portugal and explored 10,000Km of S. American coastline. In 1507 the cartographer Martin Waldseemuller applied the name ‘America’ to the continent Amerigo Vespucci ( ) made several voyages to the new world for Spain and Portugal and explored 10,000Km of S. American coastline. In 1507 the cartographer Martin Waldseemuller applied the name ‘America’ to the continent

29 29

30 30 The Age of Discovery The ‘northwest passage’ The ‘northwest passage’ Martin Frobisher (1576, 1577, 1578), Henry Hudson (1607,1608, 1609, 1610) and William Baffin (1615, 1616)Martin Frobisher (1576, 1577, 1578), Henry Hudson (1607,1608, 1609, 1610) and William Baffin (1615, 1616) Sir Francis Drake ( ) and the Golden Hinde completed circumnavigation 1580 after plundering Spanish shipping, exploring the west coast of N. America Sir Francis Drake ( ) and the Golden Hinde completed circumnavigation 1580 after plundering Spanish shipping, exploring the west coast of N. America

31 31 Sir Francis Drake’s ship The Golden Hinde A replica in Southwark section of London

32 32

33 33 Johannes Van Keulen’s Great New and Improved Sea-Atlas or Water-World

34 34 Navigational Aids Compass Compass ChineseChinese Sextant Sextant HalleyHalley Chronometer Chronometer John HarrisonJohn Harrison Charts Charts Hydrographic offices France (1720) and England (1795)Hydrographic offices France (1720) and England (1795)

35 35 Instrumentation Sextant c Early Astrolabe Read altitude of Sun or stars against a curved scale Harrison’s H4 Chronometer Arabic Astrolabe

36 36 Greenwich Observatory Shepard Gate Clock, 1852 First to provide Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) to the public East and West- The Prime Meridian at Greenwich Officially Established in 1884 at a conference in Washington, DC

37 37 MARINE SCIENCE:BEGINNINGS To maintain marine superiority, British undertook voyages of discovery Captain James Cook made 3 voyages to map Pacific between To maintain marine superiority, British undertook voyages of discovery Captain James Cook made 3 voyages to map Pacific between voyage of the Endeavor Primary mission was to flex military muscle in south seas. Transported scientists to Tahiti. Searched for southern continent. Charted New Zealand, Great Barrier Reef and many small islands.1768 voyage of the Endeavor Primary mission was to flex military muscle in south seas. Transported scientists to Tahiti. Searched for southern continent. Charted New Zealand, Great Barrier Reef and many small islands. Later on the Resolution, charts Tonga and Easter Island. Sails as far south as 71 degrees but never sees Antarctica.Later on the Resolution, charts Tonga and Easter Island. Sails as far south as 71 degrees but never sees Antarctica. In 1776 Cook attempts to find Northwest Passage around Alaska and Canada. Charts Hawaii and West Coast of N.A. Returns to Hawaii and is killed in 1779.In 1776 Cook attempts to find Northwest Passage around Alaska and Canada. Charts Hawaii and West Coast of N.A. Returns to Hawaii and is killed in conquered scurvy - vitamin C deficiencyconquered scurvy - vitamin C deficiency Made soundings, observations on winds, currents, temperatures.Made soundings, observations on winds, currents, temperatures.

38 38

39 39 The Cutty Sark

40 40 MARINE SCIENCE:BEGINNINGS Benjamin Franklin ( ) and Timothy Folger- The Gulf Stream chart 1769 Benjamin Franklin ( ) and Timothy Folger- The Gulf Stream chart 1769 Thomas Jefferson and the creation of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey (1807) Thomas Jefferson and the creation of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey (1807) The US Naval Hydrographic Office (1830) The US Naval Hydrographic Office (1830)

41 41 Franklin-Folger Map of the Gulf Stream 1769 SST Satellite Map for 1996

42 42 Lt. Matthew Maury Chart of the Gulf Stream Lt. Matthew Maury ( ) founded Naval Depot of Charts and Instruments (1842), began systematic collection of wind and current data. Published The Physical Geography of the Sea (1855) the first true oceanographic text

43 43 Oceanography: The Science Begins Alexander von Humboldt ( ) author of Cosmos, made observation ( ) on the north flowing current off the western coast of S. America Alexander von Humboldt ( ) author of Cosmos, made observation ( ) on the north flowing current off the western coast of S. America Charles Darwin ( ) entered scientific scene as a naturalist on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, a British survey ship, from Best know for theory of evolution published in Origin of Species. He also published structure and distribution of coral reefs which described how subsidence of oceanic islands produces progressive changes in reef from fringing reef to atoll formation. Charles Darwin ( ) entered scientific scene as a naturalist on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, a British survey ship, from Best know for theory of evolution published in Origin of Species. He also published structure and distribution of coral reefs which described how subsidence of oceanic islands produces progressive changes in reef from fringing reef to atoll formation.

44 44

45 45 The Challenger Expedition 1st. large scale voyage to study the Marine environment in 1872 under chief scientist C. Wyville Thompson. To investigate: 1st. large scale voyage to study the Marine environment in 1872 under chief scientist C. Wyville Thompson. To investigate: 1) Physical conditions of deep sea in ocean basins.1) Physical conditions of deep sea in ocean basins. 2) Chemical composition of SW at all depths.2) Chemical composition of SW at all depths. 3) Physical and chemical characteristics of sea floor and its origin.3) Physical and chemical characteristics of sea floor and its origin. 4) Distribution of life at all depths and seafloor.4) Distribution of life at all depths and seafloor. 3.5 yr voyage logging mile took deep sea soundings, bottom dredges, open water trawls and water temperature observations. 3.5 yr voyage logging mile took deep sea soundings, bottom dredges, open water trawls and water temperature observations. netted and classified 4717 new species of organisms, deepest sounding in Marianas trench 26,850 ft. collected Manganese Nodulesnetted and classified 4717 new species of organisms, deepest sounding in Marianas trench 26,850 ft. collected Manganese Nodules

46 46 The Cruise of the Challenger

47 47 The Challenger Expedition Dredging and sounding Sieving bottom samples

48 48 The Challenger Expedition Zoological Laboratory Chemical Lab In the equatorial mid-AtlanticBiological Dredge

49 49 Deep sea deposits, shells of microscopic organisms that make-up the muds and clays of the seafloor from the Challenger Expedition

50 50 Scientific Equipment - Early Oceanographic Tools Trawl Benthic Dredge Sounding Device Collection Cup Dredging

51 51 The Rise of the Oceanographic Institutions Stazione Zoologica at Naples, Italy 1870’s Stazione Zoologica at Naples, Italy 1870’s Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) 1880 Woods Hole, MA Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) 1880 Woods Hole, MA Scripps Institution of Oceanography 1903 (1925) La Jolla, CA Scripps Institution of Oceanography 1903 (1925) La Jolla, CA Prince Albert I of Monaco established an oceanographic institute in Paris and the Musee Oceanographique at Monaco, 1910 Prince Albert I of Monaco established an oceanographic institute in Paris and the Musee Oceanographique at Monaco, 1910 Woods Hole Oceanographic 1930 Institution (WHOI) Woods Hole, MA Woods Hole Oceanographic 1930 Institution (WHOI) Woods Hole, MA Numerous others in other countries Numerous others in other countries

52 52 SCRIPPS

53 53 WHOI

54 54 Oceanography in the 20 th Century In 1934, deep-sea researcher William Beebe and Barton made their world record descent to a half a mile (3,028 feet) beneath the surface of the ocean off Nonsuch Island, Bermuda in the Bathysphere, a hollow steel ball only 4' 9'' in diameter. He and two other men dove in this submersible, lowered and raised by a thin steel cable affixed to a winch on a barge. Beebe observed deep-sea fish and other marine organisms in their deep-sea habitat, an environment that no one else had ever explored firsthand In 1934, deep-sea researcher William Beebe and Barton made their world record descent to a half a mile (3,028 feet) beneath the surface of the ocean off Nonsuch Island, Bermuda in the Bathysphere, a hollow steel ball only 4' 9'' in diameter. He and two other men dove in this submersible, lowered and raised by a thin steel cable affixed to a winch on a barge. Beebe observed deep-sea fish and other marine organisms in their deep-sea habitat, an environment that no one else had ever explored firsthand In 1943, when Jacques-Yves Costeau and Emile Gagnan perfected the fully automatic compressed air Aqualung, the precursor to modern-day SCUBA systems. This technological advance opened the exploration of shallow-water ocean habitats to thousands of researchers from around the world. In 1943, when Jacques-Yves Costeau and Emile Gagnan perfected the fully automatic compressed air Aqualung, the precursor to modern-day SCUBA systems. This technological advance opened the exploration of shallow-water ocean habitats to thousands of researchers from around the world.

55 55 Oceanography in the 20 th Century Plate Tectonic theory is born in 1960's Plate Tectonic theory is born in 1960's The development of submersibles allowed the finding of hydrothermal vents by Alvin (1977) and further documentation of sea floor events; similarly ROVs and AUVs have allowed greater sea exploration (e.g., Titanic discovery) The development of submersibles allowed the finding of hydrothermal vents by Alvin (1977) and further documentation of sea floor events; similarly ROVs and AUVs have allowed greater sea exploration (e.g., Titanic discovery) In 1978 the first satellite dedicated to ocean studies was launched and subsequent satellites now provide data on circulation, currents, temperatures, ice cover, color, and topography of the ocean surface In 1978 the first satellite dedicated to ocean studies was launched and subsequent satellites now provide data on circulation, currents, temperatures, ice cover, color, and topography of the ocean surface From the the Glomar Challenger discovers much information about the ocean's bottom through drilling activities through the Deep Sea Drilling Program From the the Glomar Challenger discovers much information about the ocean's bottom through drilling activities through the Deep Sea Drilling Program Since 1985 the work of the Ocean Drilling Program continued with the JOIDES Resolution Since 1985 the work of the Ocean Drilling Program continued with the JOIDES Resolution

56 56 Glomar Challenger

57 57 Submersibles

58 JOIDES Resolution

59 59 Satellite Oceanography SeasatGeosatTopex ERS-2Seastar

60 60 False Color Satellite Imagery High to Low (Red to purple) concentrations of phytoplankton

61 61

62 62 Figure 1.17b


Download ppt "GEOS 115 Introduction to Oceanography. 2 What is Oceanography? The goal of understanding the oceans through the physical, geological, chemical and biological."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google