Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS And why yours are just so, so awful.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS And why yours are just so, so awful."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS And why yours are just so, so awful.

2  You write them first.  You wouldn’t try to introduce a person you’ve never met; you’d get to know them first.  You say the entire paper in short, conversational form.  You talk about things that are either minor points in the paper, or not centrally relevant at all. WHY YOUR INTRODUCTIONS ARE AWFUL Uhhhh… hm…

3  Writing the intro after the paper is done makes it easier, clearer, and better.  It enables you to introduce the paper that exists, instead of the paper you thought you’d write beforehand.  It also ties the introduction more effectively to the conclusion by enabling you to write them at the same time. WRITE THE INTRO AFTER YOU WRITE THE PAPER

4  Transition the reader from what they were thinking about, to what you want them to think about.  Establish where the analysis is going; give the reader a sense of what’s to come without spelling it out.  When the introduction is done, the reader understands the point of this analysis, what is to be learned, how it will be learned, and what kind of author is writing it. WHY YOU HAVE AN INTRODUCTION…

5  Get the scorer/instructor from “I have to read this” to “I want to read this.”  It’s the difference between looking for reasons the paper is bad, and looking for reasons it’s good. IN ESSENCE:

6  Attention Getter  Topic Overview: Essential background about your topic and preparation for your major thesis.  Thesis: one clear sentence laying out the thesis, with a holistic preview of the paper. WHAT GOES IN THE INTRODUCTION

7  1 – 2 sentences that immediately engage the reader’s curiosity, surprise and/or need for answers  A meaningful quote  A fresh, interesting analogy or metaphor  An interesting, relevant fact  Regardless, it is set up (source, credentials, context), and cited afterward THE ATTENTION-GETTER

8  Dictionary beginning.  “Webster’s dictionary defines Ethos as…”  “I guess I’ll start at the beginning” intro’s  “Since the dawn of time man has valued freedom…”  “ Did you know? ” or “ Have you ever wondered? ” rhetorical questions  (Of course, you’d never use “you” in a paper, so this one shouldn’t matter, should it…?) OPENINGS TO AVOID 1

9  Fake/vague things: stories, scenarios, etc.  When Timmy gets to class each morning he has a harder time paying attention because he hasn’t had breakfast. Vs.  According to Feeding America’s 2013 statistics, in any Oregon classroom of 30 students, 9 of them can’t count on having had breakfast that morning (Oregon Hunger). OPENINGS TO AVOID 2

10  Imagine one day the government being able to find out everything about a person any time they want. Vs.  Dr. Elman James, professor at MIT, recently stated that he believes that by 2045 nanotechnology will have evolved to the point that “microscopic robots will be able to enter a person’s body and listen to their conversations, track their whereabouts throughout the day, and even run a tox-screen for the presence of illegal drugs in their blood,” all without the target’s knowledge (James p7).

11  Approx. 3 sentences, total  The first sentence explains the attention-getter and connects it to the general topic.  Dr. Elman James, professor at MIT, recently … the presence of illegal drugs in their blood,” all without the target’s knowledge (James p7).  Even without understanding what Dr. James is describing, it carries an ominous tone – a future of unlimited, invisible surveillance courtesy of a technology that already exists yet few understand. TOPIC OVERVIEW

12  The next couple sentences, now that the general topic has been mentioned, establishes the topic and general focus: what subject – specifically – are you going to be writing about?  Anya Vendaram’s The Future Will Be Invisible delves in to the far- reaching ramification of nanotechnology, frequently painting a chilling picture of the misuse of nanotechnology that is not just possible, she asserts, not just inevitable, but by design. Nano technology, the production microscopic – down to the size of a single molecule – robots has such incredible medical potential, Vendaram asserts, that people often forget the dark side of such technology. Their potential for misuse by governments is almost incomprehensible – yet to dwell on that might make an author look paranoid or uncredible. TOPIC OVERVIEW 2

13  1 sentence. JUST ONE.  The preliminary thesis with a holistic sense of where the analysis is going.  So, while not ignoring the potentially massive benefits nanotech and nanorobots may yield, Vendaram, in order to maintain her own credibility, directs the reader’s focus subtly toward the makers of the future themselves, letting their words – even when intended as excitement – carry the sense of danger and foreboding Vendaram wishes to translate to the reader. THESIS & HOLISTIC PREVIEW

14 CONCLUSIONS

15  You’re so happy to be “done” with the paper that you crank out 3 sentences of… whatever. SLOPPY! BORING!  You restate the thesis and main points exactly as they appeared in the intro. BORING! TRANSPARENT!  You bring up a new topic or add irrelevant details to make the paper longer. TRANSPARENT!  You focus on a minor point in the essay. BAFFLING!  You apologize for your view by saying such equivalent things as "I may not be an expert" or or “but other people might have different views” or "At least this is my opinion.” CREDIBILITY SHATTERING! WHY YOUR CONCLUSIONS ARE AWFUL

16  Why you have a conclusion:  To synthesize your ideas and leave the reader with a crystal clear sense of your central point.  To drive home the single concept you want your reader to most clearly take away. CONCLUSIONS

17  What it does:  Brings us back to the introduction, but showing us the topic in a new light, now that the reader has gained the knowledge in the paper.  Mirrors the introduction Intro Conclusion Attention-getterReworked thesis Topic overviewPaper Underview ThesisClosing image CONCLUSIONS

18  The thesis has evolved in light of your analysis. Now that we know more about the topic, how has the paper changed?  Before: So, while not ignoring the potentially massive benefits nanotech and nanorobots may yield, Vendaram, in order to maintain her own credibility, directs the readers focus subtly toward the makers of the future themselves, letting their words – even when intended as excitement – carry the sense of danger and foreboding Vendaram wishes to translate to the reader.  Now: Vendaram, wary of appearing to be a Chicken Little about governments and nanotechnology, maintains her credibility by presenting her information in a seemingly neutral format, allowing the pioneers in nanotech to expound on its potential use – and mis- use – letting their inevitable turn to government abuse carry her message. REWORKED THESIS

19  Just like an overview, but instead of explaining the topic, you’re synthesizing the paper‘s content itself.  Summary = bad.  Listing the subtopics and what you said about them.  Synthesis = good  Recapping what the subtopics all have in common. What have you “concluded” about the subject? UNDERVIEW

20  This should be directly connected to the attention-getter.  Another, connected quote.  A thought/expansion on the opening quote.  A comparative anecdotal story CLOSING IMAGE

21


Download ppt "INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS And why yours are just so, so awful."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google