# INTRODUCTION Who We Are: Northern Michigan University NASA Resource Center: Seaborg Math & Science Center Workshop Presenters: Debra Homeier, Seaborg Center.

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INTRODUCTION Who We Are: Northern Michigan University NASA Resource Center: Seaborg Math & Science Center Workshop Presenters: Debra Homeier, Seaborg Center Director Scott Stobbelaar, Star Lab Consultant Chris Standerford, Shiras Planetarium Director

Night Sky Network Introduction MAS (Marquette Astronomical Society) http://www.mqtastrosociety.webs.com NSN homepage: http://nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov/ What is required in order to receive Night Sky Toolkits

1 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Origins Education Forum - STScI Navigator Public Engagement Program - JPL

2 1915: Einstein’s Theory of Gravity predicted the possibility of black holes, but no one believed they actually existed! Today: NASA space telescopes have discovered evidence for black holes throughout the universe 1915: Einstein’s Theory of Gravity predicted the possibility of black holes, but no one believed they actually existed! 1967: Term “Black Hole” coined 1970’s: Convincing evidence that black holes are real Today: NASA space telescopes have discovered evidence for black holes throughout the universe Albert Einstein

3 What did Einstein say about Gravity? Mass distorts space - “curving” it Objects and light moving near the massive object are forced to take a curved path around the object. Just like the Moon orbiting Earth. Images courtesy of Professor Gabor Kunstatter, University of Winnipeg

4 What is a Black Hole? An unimaginably dense region of space where space is curved around it so completely and gravity becomes so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape. Mass is so great in such a small volume that the velocity needed to escape is greater than the speed light travels.

5 How much would you “weigh”? On Earth, let’s say you weigh 150 lbs. On the Moon, you’d weigh 25 lbs. On Jupiter, you’d weigh 350 lbs. On the Sun, you’d weigh 4,000 lbs. Near a Black Hole, you’d weigh over 20 TRILLON POUNDS !!!

7 Where do black holes come from? Three classifications of black holes:  #1- Stellar-mass: 3 to 20 times the mass of our Sun  #2 - Supermassive: Black holes with millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun  #3 - Mid-mass: In between stellar-mass and supermassive

6 #1 Stellar-mass: Black holes are made when a giant star, many times the mass of our Sun, dies. Most of the star’s atmosphere is blown into space as a supernova explosion. The star’s spent core collapses under its own weight. If the remaining mass is more than the mass of 3 Suns, it will collapse into a black hole. How do they form? Credit: European Southern Observatory

8 #2-Supermassive: Extremely massive black holes have been found in the centers of many galaxies - including our own! Where do black holes come from? Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO) - Very Large Telescope

9 #3 Mid-Mass: Scientists are finding these in the centers of large, dense star clusters. Like this globular star cluster, called M15, in our Galaxy. Where do black holes come from? Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

10 What do you think? 1.What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole? 2.Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner? 3.What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass? 4.If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

11 Falling into a Black Hole Not to Scale

12 Falling into a Black Hole Not to Scale

13 Falling into a Black Hole Not to Scale

14 Falling into a Black Hole Not to Scale

10 What do you think? 1.What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole? 2.Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner? 3.What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass? 4.If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

19 Including one giant black hole at the very center. There are 200 billion stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way There are also millions of black holes How have we survived and avoided being ‘sucked up’ by a black hole?

16 M74 Photo Credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF Great distances between the stars!

17 M74 Photo Credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF Sun’s orbit > Everything is orbiting fast!

10 What do you think? 1.What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole? 2.Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner? 3.What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass? 4.If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

18 What would happen if the Sun was… Not to Scale

19 … changed into a Black Hole? Not to Scale

10 What do you think? 1.What happens to a spaceship that falls into a black hole? 2.Will the black holes in our Galaxy eventually suck up everything in it - a cosmic vacuum cleaner? 3.What would happen to Earth if the Sun was replaced by a black hole of the same mass? 4.If we can’t see black holes, how do we know they are there?

20 Where is the Black Hole?

21 How do we know it’s there? Hot material falling into the black hole. “Weird” motions of objects nearby Jets of glowing gas Credit: ESA, NASA, and Felix Mirabel

22 How do we know it’s there? Movie courtesy Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, Germany. “Weird” motions of objects nearby Year

24 How do we know it’s there? Movie courtesy Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, Germany. Hot material falling into the black hole. Minutes

25 How do we know it’s there? Movie courtesy of R. Spencer, S. Garrington, D. McKay, T. Muxlow, P. Thomasson, C. de la Force, A. M. Stirling (University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank); G. Pooley (University of Cambridge); R. Fender (University of Amsterdam) Jets of glowing gas One month

26 What are we trying to learn? X-ray: NASA/CXC/U. Wisconsin/A.Barger et al.; Illustrations: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Schaller (for STScI) NASA missions continue to search for and study black holes to determine the fate of matter as it falls into black holes, how powerful jets form, and what role black holes played in the formation of the early universe.

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Black Hole Survival ToolKit Training DVD Gravity Video Falling Video Orbits Video

Black Hole Classroom Videos If the Sun Becomes a Black Hole Watch the video

Black Hole Classroom Videos Black Hole Demonstration and Effects Watch the video

Black Hole Classroom Videos Searching for Black Holes Watch the video

Searching for Black Holes

RESOURCES Northern Michigan University Seaborg Center website: http://www.nmu.edu/seaborg NASA website: http://www.nasa.gov National Science Education Standards website: http://www.nap.edu Night Sky Training CD Manual and Resources Black Hole Slides Black Hole Videos

NASA Black Hole Web Links Black Hole Information and Activity Booklets http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/blackholes/blackholes.html Link to the NASA Search page of Black Holes, has General, News, Podcasts and Images. http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?nasaInclude=black+holes Link to the NASA Search of Black Hole http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?nasaInclude=black+hole Link to NASA search page of Black Holes Astronomy http://search.nasa.gov/search/search.jsp?baynoteOrGSA=baynote&nasaInclude= black+holes+%28astronomy%29&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=UTF- 8&client=nasa_production&oe=UTF- 8&actionType=searchIndex&numgm=5&site=nasa_collection

NASA Black Hole Web Links Imagine the Universe: Black Holes (Has links on the side to related articles) http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/black_holes.html World Book at NASA: Black Hole http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/blackhole_worldbook.html NASA: Black Hole: Feeling the Ripples http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/roboticexplorers/black_holes_ripple.ht ml Black Holes Simple Feeding Habits Image http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1114.html

NASA Black Hole Web Links Baby Black Hole http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/double_burst.html Medium Black Hole in Omega Centauri http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/hst_img_20080402.htm l Colliding Galaxies Create Active Galactic Nuclei http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=141004 31 For other NASA articles go to: http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html (Enter Black Hole in the search bar)

Black Hole Event Evaluation: https://oedc.nasa.gov/dc/anonymous.jsp?a=706 23635783767870612561999

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