1 Providing Effective Tutoring and Study Group Sessions: Strategies that Work! Saundra Yancy McGuire, Ph.D.Assistant Vice ChancellorProfessor, Department of ChemistryPast Director, Center for Academic SuccessLouisiana State University
2 Desired outcomesWe will identify the challenges faced by tutors who are helping their peersWe will understand the role of metacognition in helping peersWe will collaboratively develop concrete strategies that will increase our effectiveness with our peersOther outcomes you’d like to see?
3 Reflection QuestionsWhat’s the difference, if any, between studying and learning?What are two things that inhibit your effectiveness as a peer tutor?
4 The Story of Four Students Travis, junior psychology student47, 52, 82, B in courseRobert, first year chemistry student42, 100, 100, A in courseMaryam, first year art student57, B in courseDana, first year physics student80, 54, 91, 97, 90 (final) A in course
5 Final Examination Improvement Date of Final Exam: December 14, 2005Meeting with Student No. 1: December 12, 2005Meeting with Student Nos. 2 & 4: December 2, 2005Meeting with Student No. 3: December 8, 2005The final was worth 100 points with a 10 bonus question.
6 How’d They Do It? They became expert, strategic learners by using metacognition!They studied to LEARN,not just to make the grade!
7 Metacognition* The ability to: think about one’s own thinking be consciously aware of oneself as a problem solvermonitor and control one’s mental processing (e.g. “Am I understanding this material?”)accurately judge one’s level of learning*Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
8 Why don’t many students already have effective learning strategies? It wasn’t necessary in high school*- 63% of 2010 entering first year students spent less than six hours per week doing homework in 12th grade.- More than 48% of these students said they graduated from high school with an “A” average.**2010 Higher Education Research Institute Study
9 Peer Tutors Can Help Students close “the gap” between effective and ineffective learning behaviors current behavior current gradeseffective behavior desired grades
10 Peer Tutors Must Help Students Learn How to Learn! Help them understand the learning processTeach them specific learning strategiesEncourage them to monitor their use of the learning strategies
11 Turning Your Students into Efficient, Expert Learners Have them constantly ask “why” and “what if” questionsHave them test their understanding by verbalizing or writing about concepts; practicing retrieval of informationHave them move their activities higher on the Bloom’s taxonomy scale by comparing and contrasting, thinking of analogies, thinking of new pathways, etc.
12 Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above.Bloom’s TaxonomyEvaluationGraduate SchoolMaking decisions and supporting views; requires understanding of values.Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality.SynthesisIdentifying components; determining arrangement, logic, and semantics.AnalysisUndergraduateUsing information to solve problems; transferring abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations. Identifying connections and relationships and how they apply.ApplicationRestating in your own words; paraphrasing, summarizing, translating.ComprehensionHigh SchoolMemorizing verbatim information. Being able to remember, but not necessarily fully understanding the material.KnowledgeLouisiana State University Center for Academic Success B-31 Coates Hall
13 A Learning Strategy that can be quickly and easily implemented to help students think at higher levels: The Study Cycle**adapted from Frank Christ’s PLRS system
14 The Study Cycle Preview Attend Review Study Assess 4 Reflect 3 Review Preview before class – Skim the chapter, note headings and boldface words, review summaries and chapter objectives, and come up with questions you’d like the lecture to answer for you.Preview4 ReflectAttend class – GO TO CLASS! Answer and ask questions and take meaningful notes.AttendReview after class – As soon after class as possible, read notes, fill in gaps and note any questions.ReviewStudy – Repetition is the key. Ask questions such as ‘why’, ‘how’, and ‘what if’.Intense Study Sessions* short study sessions per dayWeekend Review – Read notes and material from the week to make connectionsStudyAssess your Learning – Periodically perform reality checksAm I using study methods that are effective?Do I understand the material enough to teach it to others?Assess*Intense Study Sessions1Set a Goal(1-2 min)Decide what you want to accomplish in your study session2Study with Focus(30-50 min)Interact with material- organize, concept map, summarize, process, re-read, fill-in notes, reflect, etc.3Reward Yourself(10-15 min)Take a break– call a friend, play a short game, get a snack4Review(5 min)Go over what you just studiedCenter for Academic SuccessB-31 Coates Hall ▪ ▪www.cas.lsu.edu
15 Cutting Edge Metacognition Workshop Help Your Students Develop the Right MindsetCutting Edge Metacognition Workshop4/15/2017Shenk, David, The Genius in All of Us: Why Everything You've Been Told About Genetics, Talent, and IQ Is Wrong. New York: DoubledayDweck, Carol, 2006.Mindset: The New Psychologyof Success. New York:Random House Publishing
16 Mindset* is Important! Fixed Intelligence Mindset Intelligence is staticYou have a certain amount of itGrowth Intelligence MindsetIntelligence can be developedYou can grow it with actionsDweck, Carol (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.New York: Random House Publishing
17 Mindset determines reactions to Challenges – avoid vs. embraceObstacles – give up easily vs. persistTasks requiring effort – fruitless vs. path to masteryCriticism – ignore vs. learn fromSuccess of Others – feel threatened by vs. find lessons and inspiration in
18 in Learning and Performance The Role of Confidencein Learning and PerformanceStudents are more likely to attempt activitiesabout which they feel confidentPeer Tutors can give students the confidence to try and the strategies to succeed! HOW?“If you think you can...or if you think you can't...you're right!“ Henry Ford
19 Great Strategies for Helping Peers LEARN! Establish expectations and ground rulesHelp tutee set goals and timelinescome often, prepared, and on ready to learn!Attribute failures to correctable causes and success to personal competenceCelebrate successes!Help students get to know each other and form study groups
20 Metacognitive Get Acquainted Activity* What do you believe is important to understand and learn in _____________________?What do you believe to be critical characteristics of successful students in ___________?How will you study and prepare for exams in ______________________________?*Simpson, M. & Rush, L. (2012) in Teaching Study Strategies in Developmental Education, Hodges, Simpson, Stahl eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s
21 Consider the email below from a Spring 2011 Chemistry student: Why Are Metacognitive Strategies Important?Consider the below from a Spring 2011 Chemistry student:“…Personally, I am not so good at chemistry and unfortunately, at this point my grade for that class is reflecting exactly that. I am ing you inquiring about a possibility of you tutoring me.”April 6, 2011…And after learning metacognitive strategies, NOT tutoring:“I made a 68, 50, (50), 87, 87, and a 97 on my final. I ended up earning a 90 (A) in the course, but I started with a 60 (D). I think what I did different was make sidenotes in each chapter and as I progressed onto the next chapter I was able to refer to these notes. I would say that in chemistry everything builds from the previous topic.May 13, 2011Semester GPA: 3.8
22 Motivation: The REAL Difference between a 1.8 and a 3.8 GPA!
23 Motivate Your Students! Strongly encourage them to:Consider their goalsDevelop a plan! (e.g. schedule study appointments with themselves; make a study bet with friends; devise a new place to studyCommit to Three or More Intense Study Sessions per day (two during daylight hours)Take the CAS on-line workshops (www.cas.lsu.edu)Believe in themselves!!!
24 Small Group ActivityHow can you infuse learning strategies information into sessions with your tutees?
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