Presentation on theme: "Saundra Yancy McGuire, Ph.D. Assistant Vice Chancellor Professor, Department of Chemistry Past Director, Center for Academic Success Louisiana State University."— Presentation transcript:
Saundra Yancy McGuire, Ph.D. Assistant Vice Chancellor Professor, Department of Chemistry Past Director, Center for Academic Success Louisiana State University Providing Effective Tutoring and Study Group Sessions: Strategies that Work!
Desired outcomes We will identify the challenges faced by tutors who are helping their peers We will understand the role of metacognition in helping peers We will collaboratively develop concrete strategies that will increase our effectiveness with our peers Other outcomes you’d like to see?
Reflection Questions What’s the difference, if any, between studying and learning? What are two things that inhibit your effectiveness as a peer tutor?
The Story of Four Students Travis, junior psychology student 47, 52, 82, 86B in course Robert, first year chemistry student 42, 100, 100, 100A in course Maryam, first year art student 57, 87B in course Dana, first year physics student 80, 54, 91, 97, 90 (final) A in course
Date of Final Exam:December 14, 2005 Meeting with Student No. 1:December 12, 2005 Meeting with Student Nos. 2 & 4:December 2, 2005 Meeting with Student No. 3:December 8, 2005 The final was worth 100 points with a 10 bonus question. Final Examination Improvement
How’d They Do It? They became expert, strategic learners by using metacognition! They studied to LEARN, not just to make the grade!
Metacognition* The ability to: think about one’s own thinking be consciously aware of oneself as a problem solver monitor and control one’s mental processing (e.g. “Am I understanding this material?”) accurately judge one’s level of learning *Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Why don’t many students already have effective learning strategies? It wasn’t necessary in high school* - 63% of 2010 entering first year students spent less than six hours per week doing homework in 12 th grade. -More than 48% of these students said they graduated from high school with an “A” average.* *2010 Higher Education Research Institute Study
current behavior current grades effective behavior desired grades Peer Tutors Can Help Students close “the gap” between effective and ineffective learning behaviors
Peer Tutors Must Help Students Learn How to Learn! Help them understand the learning process Teach them specific learning strategies Encourage them to monitor their use of the learning strategies
Turning Your Students into Efficient, Expert Learners Have them constantly ask “why” and “what if” questions Have them test their understanding by verbalizing or writing about concepts; practicing retrieval of information Have them move their activities higher on the Bloom’s taxonomy scale by comparing and contrasting, thinking of analogies, thinking of new pathways, etc.
Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Making decisions and supporting views; requires understanding of values. Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality. Using information to solve problems; transferring abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations. Identifying connections and relationships and how they apply. Restating in your own words; paraphrasing, summarizing, translating. Memorizing verbatim information. Being able to remember, but not necessarily fully understanding the material. Bloom’s Taxonomy Louisiana State University Center for Academic Success B-31 Coates Hall 225-578-2872 www.cas.lsu.edu Identifying components; determining arrangement, logic, and semantics. Graduate School Undergraduate High School This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above.
A Learning Strategy that can be quickly and easily implemented to help students think at higher levels: The Study Cycle* *adapted from Frank Christ’s PLRS system
4 Reflect The Study Cycle 1 Set a Goal(1-2 min) Decide what you want to accomplish in your study session 2 Study with Focus(30-50 min) Interact with material- organize, concept map, summarize, process, re-read, fill-in notes, reflect, etc. 3 Reward Yourself(10-15 min) Take a break– call a friend, play a short game, get a snack 4 Review(5 min) Go over what you just studied *Intense Study Sessions Attend Review Study Attend class – GO TO CLASS! Answer and ask questions and take meaningful notes. Preview before class – Skim the chapter, note headings and boldface words, review summaries and chapter objectives, and come up with questions you’d like the lecture to answer for you. Review after class – As soon after class as possible, read notes, fill in gaps and note any questions. Assess your Learning – Periodically perform reality checks Am I using study methods that are effective? Do I understand the material enough to teach it to others? Preview C enter for A cademic S uccess B-31 Coates Hall ▪ 225.578.2872 ▪www.cas.lsu.edu Assess Study – Repetition is the key. Ask questions such as ‘why’, ‘how’, and ‘what if’. Intense Study Sessions* - 3-5 short study sessions per day Weekend Review – Read notes and material from the week to make connections
Dweck, Carol, 2006. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House Publishing Help Your Students Develop the Right Mindset Shenk, David, 2010. The Genius in All of Us: Why Everything You've Been Told About Genetics, Talent, and IQ Is Wrong. New York: Doubleday
Mindset* is Important! Fixed Intelligence Mindset Intelligence is static You have a certain amount of it Growth Intelligence Mindset Intelligence can be developed You can grow it with actions Dweck, Carol (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House Publishing
Mindset determines reactions to Challenges – avoid vs. embrace Obstacles – give up easily vs. persist Tasks requiring effort – fruitless vs. path to mastery Criticism – ignore vs. learn from Success of Others – feel threatened by vs. find lessons and inspiration in
The Role of Confidence in Learning and Performance Students are more likely to attempt activities about which they feel confident Peer Tutors can give students the confidence to try and the strategies to succeed! HOW? “ If you think you can...or if you think you can't...you're right!“ Henry Ford
Great Strategies for Helping Peers LEARN! Establish expectations and ground rules Help tutee set goals and timelines come often, prepared, and on ready to learn! Attribute failures to correctable causes and success to personal competence Celebrate successes! Help students get to know each other and form study groups
Metacognitive Get Acquainted Activity* What do you believe is important to understand and learn in _____________________? What do you believe to be critical characteristics of successful students in ___________? How will you study and prepare for exams in ______________________________? *Simpson, M. & Rush, L. (2012) in Teaching Study Strategies in Developmental Education, Hodges, Simpson, Stahl eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s
“…Personally, I am not so good at chemistry and unfortunately, at this point my grade for that class is reflecting exactly that. I am emailing you inquiring about a possibility of you tutoring me.” April 6, 2011 …And after learning metacognitive strategies, NOT tutoring: “I made a 68, 50, (50), 87, 87, and a 97 on my final. I ended up earning a 90 (A) in the course, but I started with a 60 (D). I think what I did different was make sidenotes in each chapter and as I progressed onto the next chapter I was able to refer to these notes. I would say that in chemistry everything builds from the previous topic. May 13, 2011 Semester GPA: 3.8 Why Are Metacognitive Strategies Important? Consider the email below from a Spring 2011 Chemistry student:
Motivation: The REAL Difference between a 1.8 and a 3.8 GPA!
Motivate Your Students! Strongly encourage them to: Consider their goals Develop a plan! (e.g. schedule study appointments with themselves; make a study bet with friends; devise a new place to study Commit to Three or More Intense Study Sessions per day (two during daylight hours) Take the CAS on-line workshops (www.cas.lsu.edu) Believe in themselves!!!
Small Group Activity How can you infuse learning strategies information into sessions with your tutees?