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The Inner Planets - Geology It’s too hot close to the sun. No ices. So only the rocky material (~3% of the solar nebula) could collect. Not hydrogen and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Inner Planets - Geology It’s too hot close to the sun. No ices. So only the rocky material (~3% of the solar nebula) could collect. Not hydrogen and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Inner Planets - Geology It’s too hot close to the sun. No ices. So only the rocky material (~3% of the solar nebula) could collect. Not hydrogen and helium since their velocities are high and escape velocities are low from these small planets So – balls of rock! Most plentiful component is iron (why? Because massive stars blow up when they develop iron cores, scattering it all over the place)

2 Temp vs distance in solar system

3 Inner vs. Outer Planets characteristics

4 All planets and the sun, sizes

5 Some General Principles… 1. Magnetic Fields : caused by moving charges, which create an electric current. Circulating electric current creates a magnetic field. A planet needs two conditions to have a decent magnetic field --A. Beneath the surface, an electrically conducting interior material (metals are great for this! Iron especially) --B. Significant rotation

6 2. Bringin’ Heat Main source of initial heat is kinetic energy of impacts. ½mv 2 = (3/2)kT. Typical orbital speed is ~30km/sec, which gives enough temperature to melt rock easily! Radioactive decay of heavy elements supplies long term heating, mainly deep inside where it’s hard to conduct or convect away.

7 Early inner planet; a ball of lava

8 Inner planet interiors; summary

9 Mercury Smallest planet, only 3,000 mi across. About 40% of Earth’s diameter 600F on daylight side, too hot to retain any atmospheric molecules at all. Probably doesn’t help that the sun is so close and solar storms can rack the planet and carry off any atmosphere too. Cratering shows it hasn’t had atmosphere for most of the solar system’s history Also the densest planet – BIG iron core.

10 Mercury mariner

11 Mercury mariner-a

12 Evaporating volatiles look to have opened these cracks, like a drying mud puddle!

13 Is/Was Mercury Geologically Active? Check out this picture, and then you tell me…

14 Mercury fault

15 A fault line! But notice how the fault is older than nearly every other crater it crosses. No evidence of volcanoes on Mercury. So. Apparently, and perhaps not surprisingly, Mercury appears to have geologically “died” as a planetary youngster

16 Venus As large at the Earth. Hot! So you’d expect a thin crust and geologic activity.

17 venusOrangeClouds

18 Venus-all

19 Venus lava flows

20 Venus-surface1

21 Venus-surface2

22 Venus-surface4

23 So we see… Volcanoes Faults A few BIG impact craters, but not much in the way of small ones. It may be that the surface rock is not very hard, but more like a very stiff plastic which can flow over time. Obliterating small craters? Wind erosion? Or… (stay tuned for the next chapter!)

24 Venera-left

25 Venera-right

26 Earth – largest inner planet Crust divided into tectonic plates which move due to friction against the moving molten mantle underneath. Continental drift animationContinental drift animation

27 Folded mountains – earth and Venus

28 Aurora, iceland volcano

29 Mt. Aetna in italy

30 But Why? We don’t see tectonic plates on the other inner planets. Why Earth? The reason may be related to the origin of the moon….

31 Our moon is weird No other inner planet has a sizable moon If our moon formed as part of a spinning proto-Earth, you’d expect it would orbit in the same plane as our equator. Instead it orbits close to the ecliptic plane Its got only a tiny iron core Its chemical composition is the same as the earth’s outer mantle and crust And… the Earth spins much faster than Venus or Mercury, and faster than Mars too.

32 Putting These Clues Together Strongly Suggests … The moon was created as a by-product of a collision between the early Earth and another planet. How BIG a planet? We have run detailed numerical simulations, tossing all the relevant physics into a many-body problem and numerically integrating it forward Here’s an animation of the simulationanimation of the simulation

33 moonPlieades

34 moon

35 Moon’s surface; maria vs highlands

36 Mare humorum,

37 Clavius 160mi across

38 Apollo 15 on moon1

39 Apollo 15 on moon

40 Graze reduction

41 Mars – Half the Diameter of Earth Mars is small, cooled quicker than Earth, with much less radioactive decay heat contribution No evidence of geologic activity. No moving tectonic plate evidence Ancient volcanoes but they do not appear to be active in the recent past

42 marsHS

43 Mars globe, big craters

44 Olympic mons caldera

45 Mars globe, w/ v. marinaris

46 Mars valle marinaris

47 Mars continents

48 Mars solis plenum

49 Martian sand dunes

50 Mars gullies

51 Martian surface; pathfinder

52 Spirit track

53 Mars mud cracks

54 Martian rock; blueberries, razorback

55 Mars crater edge - rover

56 Mars BurnsCliffs

57 Mars drilling rock

58 Mars frozen ice floes

59 Mars heart-shaped crater

60 Mars has two tiny moons Phobos, and Diemos Probably captured asteroids, orbits do not indicate they formed as part of Mars. Mars also spins in 24 hours, convection in the mantle? May have been geologically active early on, but crust is now likely to be too thick to allow plate motion. And… Mars has no magnetic field, indicating that there is little movement of a molten interior.

61 phobos

62 Phobos mars orbiter

63 diemos

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