2Background Also called ‘The Notional-Functional Approach’(觀念/意念功能教學法） In 1960s, Situational Language Teaching(情境式語言教學）was popular.Learners are able to socialise/ communicate (溝通/交際）with social notions in social situations.Emphasis shifts from language structures to communicative functions.
3Background (cont.)Most of the methods are for Ss to learn to communicate in target language.In 1960’s, it has been questioned that Ss couldn’t genuinely communicate outside of the classroom properly.Being able to communicate required more than mastering linguistic structures.
4Background (cont.)Communication required Ss perform certain functions within a social context. Linguistic competence – rules of linguistic usage.Communicative competence – knowing when and how to say what to whom.In late 1970’s and early 1980’s, linguistic structure-centered approach shifted to Communicative Approach.
5A communicative (or funtional/notional) approach is organised on the basis of communicative functions (e.g.aplogising, describing, inviting, promising) that a given learner of group of learners needs to know and emphasises the ways in which particular grammatical forms may be used to express these functions appropriately (Canale & Swain, 1980:1)
6Theory 1965, Noam Chomsky- linguistic competence. Learners are able to communicate with grammatically correct sentences.VS.1972, Dell Hymes- communicative competence.When communicative competence is acquired, learners should acquire the knowledge and competence in different situations.
9Theory (cont.) Three principles by Richards & Rodgers (1986): The communication principle: activity design with communicative purpose.The task principle: activity design with using language to achieve meaningful task.The meaningfulness principle: activity design should be meaningful to the learners.
10Theory (cont.) Richards (1985) Communication is meaning-based. Communication is conventional.Communication is appropriate.Communication is interactional.Communication is structured.
11Aims Communicative competence. Interdependence of language and communication.Broadly apply the theoretical perspective of the Communicative Approach.
12Characteristics Done with a communicative intent. Use authentic materials.
13Teacher/ students’ role Teacher- facilitator, advisor.less dominant than teacher-centered.Students- communicators.actively engaged in negotiatingmeaning (try to make themselvesunderstood and understand others)
14Three features of communication information gap- one person in an exchange knows something the other person doesn’t.choice – speaker has a choice of what he/she will say and how to say it.feedback- communication is purposeful. Evaluate if purpose has been achieved by feedback.
15Three conditions for communication Have something to say.Have someone to say to.Have a genuine interest in the outcome of the communication (involved, engaged).
16Ways to stop Ss communicating Ask Qs to which you already know the answer.Reject Ans. If they’re not the ones you’d thought of.Reject Ans. If they’re not the ones the textbook demands.Respond to the form rather than the content.Initiate every piece of communication yourself.Pretend to understand when you haven’t.Fill the silences.