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Implications of Brain Research and the Classroom By Dr. Jeb Schenck Knowa Inc. Syngnosistraining.com 307 864 3982.

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Presentation on theme: "Implications of Brain Research and the Classroom By Dr. Jeb Schenck Knowa Inc. Syngnosistraining.com 307 864 3982."— Presentation transcript:

1 Implications of Brain Research and the Classroom By Dr. Jeb Schenck Knowa Inc. Syngnosistraining.com

2 Why Do We Need to Know How the Brain Works? Knowing how and why the brain/mind works allows more effective instruction

3 Why Do We Need to Know How the Brain Works? And better informs our leaders about which policies, laws, and practices actually agree with neuroscience research

4 3 x 5 Card List Three Things 1.Something you’ve heard about the brain works 2.Something about the brain you’d like to know more about 3.A practice or policy you think MIGHT NOT agree with research

5

6 More Complicated than Rocket Science

7 Stephen Hawking finds the universe is easier to understand than the human brain

8 Does How Does The Brain Work ?

9 Where we are going: The Brain & Learning The Brain & Learning Brain’s Use of Patterns Brain’s Use of Patterns Emotional & Attentional Processing Emotional & Attentional Processing Movement & Memory building Movement & Memory building Study Strategies/assessment Study Strategies/assessment Making Useful Applications

10 Learning Takes Place HERE

11 A Learning Brain Literally Grows Connections

12 Use It or Lose It

13 What Would Your Brain Look Like If you DON’T Use It?

14

15 In effect, all animals are under stringent selection pressure to be as stupid as they can get away with. Richerson & Boyd, Not By Genes Alone, 2005.

16 In effect, all animals are under stringent selection pressure to be as stupid as they can get away with. Richerson & Boyd, Not By Genes Alone, The default state in solving any problem is to do as little as possible.

17 Brain in Default State

18 Modern Understanding Started With An Accident

19 Phineas Gage

20 SPECT SCANS NORMALADHD ON ALCOHOL

21 Brain drawing/photo of lobes

22 Reasoning, impulse & emotional control Personality What & Where Memory starts, sound, emotional tags Vision Balance Heart, respiration & sex drive (automatic processes)

23 The Brain is Plastic (Neuroplasticity) To learn It Must Change Learning physically changes the brain

24 Brain Span vs. Life Span Brain Span: 75 yrs Life Span: yrs Increase Brain Span to match Life Span

25 Some knowledge about the brain is becoming common…but misleading

26 Teen Brain Maturation

27 The Brain Grows Everyone grows at their OWN RATE Different parts grow at different times* *It does NOT grow at the assumed rate of National/State Standards Common recommendations for Literacy Have NO Neurological foundation

28 The 4,000 Year-old Box of Instructional Methods

29 The 4,000 Year-old Box If they don’t perform by a specified time….

30 The 4,000 Year-old Box punish them

31 A Performance Goal is NOT A problem… if we keep it in line with brain’s cognitive growth.

32 What is Red Shirting? Why is it done?

33 Brain Grows In CYCLES

34 Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Optimal Level High Support Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With No Support? What Can They Do With a Lot of Support?

35 Cycles in Cognitive Development Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With a Lot of Support? Teaching

36 Cycles of Brain Growth Many cycles in early years Years Years Years Years (From K. Fischer, 2000)

37 Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Single Abstractions Principles Optimal Level High Support Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Multiple Abstractions linked into systems Abstractions linked Age in Years Direct teacher support Independent or little support

38 Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Optimal Level High Support Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With No Support? What Can They Do With Lots of Support? What happens if we push too fast for that student ?

39 Optimal Performance During Brain Growth Spurt Optimal performance requires direct support/instruction vs instruction by book or computer. Independent student performance is at a lower level (suboptimal)…You don’t get best performance when they do the task independently w/o coaching Students can’t transfer from an optimal level in one area to a high performance level in a different area*

40 A Student Brain Develops Unevenly (Out of Phase) Math computational skill is here Reading Math Comprehension is here

41 Where Do You Expect the Student to Perform? Math computational skill Reading Math Comprehension Transfer—Problem Solving Fails when skills have not developed Test level

42 Incomplete Frontal Lobe Development In A Group What happens to judgment? What happens to anticipating how others will feel? What happens to anticipating how they will feel?

43 Incomplete Frontal Lobe Growth

44 Incomplete Growth Impaired decision making Impaired decision making More impulsive More impulsive Less emotional control Less emotional control Lower ability to reason Lower ability to reason Lower ability to see consequences Lower ability to see consequences Lower ability to anticipate emotional impact Lower ability to anticipate emotional impact

45 Fact vs. Fiction

46 Fact Brain automatically organizes information But it doesn’t tell you How

47 Overriding impulsive actions …. is harder because frontal lobe isn’t fully functional Fact

48 Change the brain chemistry and you’ve changed their memory

49 How a question is Asked changes memory FACT

50 Recalled information is reconstructed from pieces Memory is being REBUILT each time you recall & use information Memory is being REBUILT each time you recall & use information FACT

51 Neuromyths You use only 10%

52 If you used only 90% you’d probably be in a coma

53 Neuromyths Right Brain Left Brain

54 Learning Preferences Differentiate w/ levels of challenge w/ different modalities Teaching and testing to a “learning style” Makes no difference, Roediger and Pashler, 2009 Neurologically invalid, dubious, outdated information (Schenck & Cruickshank, 2015) Wastes time, Wastes $

55 Neuromyths Right Brain-Left Brain training Ritualized movement produces higher performance (Brain Gym ™) Intelligence is fixed (can be expressed as a single number) The Flynn Effect Learning can be expressed as a single number Preferred learning styles results in higher performances Roediger and Pashler, 2009

56 Brain Break 4 minutes Stand and in groups of 3: Stand and in groups of 3: Something that was new or surprised you? Something that was new or surprised you? Compare your “What do you know about the Brain” Compare your “What do you know about the Brain” Something you’d like to know more about? Something you’d like to know more about?

57 Attentional Systems Emotional Systems Systems of the Brain How to Use them

58 Engaging the Brain

59 Engaging The Brain Attention Systems Looks for Patterns Tries to Make Sense of Patterns

60 The Brain must Recognize Patterns to make associations Raise your hand when you FIND TWO patterns

61 The Brain must Recognize Patterns to make associations Raise your hand when you FIND TWO patterns

62 Detecting patterns heavily influenced by 1. Prior Experience 2. Brain Growth 3. Knowing What to Look For

63 The Brain Associates Patterns w/Meaning

64 A pattern must be Recognized or students become LOST And Frustrated

65 Patterns May Have Emotional Significance Patterns Change our Focus of Attention

66 Attention Systems

67 “ I’m Not inattentive,----- you’re just boring.” From Thom Hartmann

68 Attention Systems Systems are limited Systems are limited The brain can’t give full attention to multiple tasks = Divided attention The brain can’t give full attention to multiple tasks = Divided attention

69 Demonstration of Attention An Demonstration of Attention Watch Video Clip Of Student and Stranger

70 Multi-tasking Experiment Can We REALLY Focus Our ATTENTION EQUALLY On the Tasks?

71 Partner Up You Need: 1 dollar bill or 3 x 5 card Ability to count to 121 Watch Demonstration

72 Attention Systems A student must ATTEND to the lesson

73 No Attention = almost NO CHANCE of information getting into memory No memory = No learning

74 Attention Strategies: Physical—manipulate objects, or move the whole body, such as hands-on, role play, draw, pantomime, build, model, standing a position, MUSIC (non-vocal) Visual Imagery --imagine a picture or object, draw, sketch, build a model, design a poster, create one power point slide for a group Semantic –Reflect, summarize, describe, individually write, note-take, explain, tell, NOTE THE DIFFERENCES and then SIMILIARITIES Between____________ *** Social --have them watch & text answers/info to explain their partner’s actions Sex Differences Girls are more attracted to activities where EMOTION can be expressed, Boys more attracted to ACTION, MOVEMENT *** Brain can recognize differences easily; similarities are difficult to tell apart

75 Attention Strategies: The Student is PHYSICALLY ACTIVE during the learning event

76 The Brain SEEKS stimulation If you don’t provide it, the students find it for themselves

77 What Happens If Left On Their Own?

78 +

79 = +

80 The only brain getting benefit of exercise is the dog.

81 No Engagement, No Activity = Little Learning

82 Brain Break Stand, in groups of 2 or 3 Share With Someone Near You The Most important thing about ATTENTION is: Something staff can do to increase attention is:

83 Take 1 Minute Compare with a neighbor what you checked on “What do you know about the Brain?”

84 Test Today! Emotio n

85 “Emotional Filter” New Memories

86 Emotions Enhance Learning Hinder Learning

87 Emotions Affect Learning If Emotionally Important, Brain Pays Attention

88 Make the Connections With Someone First… then consider the actual message (Papanek & Greenleaf, 2005)

89 Emotional Significance Do You Remember: Challenger blowing up, 9/11, the World Trade Center? Your third algebra test? What you did on your 21 st birthday? Your Wedding Night?

90 Emotions & Memory Chemically Made Changed by Threat or Depression Negative State NOT rapidly dissipated

91 A Demonstration 4 volunteers who like Soda Pop ICE COLD soda pop FREE to 4 volunteers that will participate in….

92 To Increase Memory Tasks have greater personal importance Student is physically & personally involved Greater natural consequences that they care about Increased Focus of Attention Light to Moderate Stress

93 Brain Break: 3 minutes Pair and Share: Pair and Share: 1 idea to make a lesson have more PERSONAL IMPORTANCE to the student (and not threatening!) 1 idea to make a lesson have more PERSONAL IMPORTANCE to the student (and not threatening!) In Groups of 4-5 Share ideas In Groups of 4-5 Share ideas

94 Working Memory It’s what your are thinking about RIGHT NOW !

95 Attention + Emotions Cowan, 2005

96 Working Memory is Very limited

97 Overload Overload : We Speak Times Faster Than A Student Can Write

98 AVOID Overload Overload picture

99 Working Memory 3-4 Items Activated, Readily Accessible 1 Item Focused Upon Working Memory

100 3-4 Items Activated, Readily Accessible 1 Item Focused Upon Working Memory Brain EASILY overloads Focuses on ONE thing Juggles several others Leaves ONLY the gist AVOID OVERLOAD

101 Working Memory Strategies Slow DownSlow Down Don’t attempt several overlapping tasksDon’t attempt several overlapping tasks Present instructions 4 ways (On board, Verbally, In handout, On-line)Present instructions 4 ways (On board, Verbally, In handout, On-line) Repeat back instructionsRepeat back instructions

102 Working Memory Strategies Slow DownSlow Down Don’t attempt several overlapping tasksDon’t attempt several overlapping tasks Present instructions 4 ways (on board, verbally, in handout, On-line)Present instructions 4 ways (on board, verbally, in handout, On-line) Repeat back instructionsRepeat back instructions

103 Look At Handout: What Administrators Should Know On2 nd page: Working Memory WHO Should Repeat Back the Instructions?

104 Working Memory Strategies Pause during explanations, lecture Pause during explanations, lecture Provide skeletal notes to help organization and reduce load Provide skeletal notes to help organization and reduce load Give Brain Breaks Give Brain Breaks to organize material Use different colors to organize material Students actively process just 1 item Students actively process just 1 item

105 Brain Break Individually: Give an example of how you will reduce WM overload & write it down (2 min). Something YOU can do to create Movement within a long Staff meeting: In Groups of 3 In Groups of 3 Discuss examples Discuss examples

106 Long-Term Memory Preparing for Assessment

107 Long Term Memory ? Remember Working Memory?

108 LTM Background

109 Hidden Factors in Long-Term Memory OXOX

110 Mirror Drawing Hidden Factors A Demonstration 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 card 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 card Mirror Mirror Writing utensil Writing utensil Mirror Drawing Practice Sheet & a hard surface Mirror Drawing Practice Sheet & a hard surface

111

112 Prior Learning Affects Current Learning

113 Memory Stabilizes after days Schenck, J. (2003) 4 th Grade 20% 13%

114 LTM Affected by: Development/age Recognizing patterns Attention Personal Emotional Significance Working Memory Prior Learning Method of Study & Test Practice

115 LTM Affected by:Development/age Recognizing patterns Attention Personal Emotional Significance Working Memory Prior Learning Method of Study & Test Practice

116 Strategies To Build Memory Personal Elaborations (Schenck & Cruickshank 2015) Personal Applications ( Schenck & Cruickshank 2015) Space practices FAR apart * Mix up the types of practice (Brown, Roediger, McDaniel, 2014) NO cramming [Binge & Purge Learning] (Roediger & McDaniel 2014) Sleep on it Practice the TEST w/tests (uses RETRIEVAL CUES ) (Roediger & Karpicke 2006) In Math, do only 3-4 problems of same type Learning Styles have NO EFFECT (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer & Bjork, 2008) * Start with the Assessment Goals & Design Practices to them

117 Practice Tests Practice Test Methods SSSST TESTe, Sm, Te, Sm, Te WIDE Equal Spacing, or Variable Spacing No Cramming Limit practice of same type of problem No Rereading Practice of transfer w/application Cahill, & McGaugh, (1995) Callender, & McDaniel, (2009) Karpicke, J., Butler, A.C., & Roediger, (2009) Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2007)

118 Practice on Same Type of Problem More than 4 creates Cramming Effect & illusion mastery because problems are familiar. AVOID cramming by spreading practices out over weeks. Limit

119 ReReading Increases familiarity Faster recognition & Creates False Sense of Understanding Chabris & Simons 2010

120 ReReading Does not increase depth of knowledge Does not create new-linkages in brain ELABORATING ELABORATING does help…Explain WHY The student must explain the connections

121 Elaborate While Personally Engaged More Robust Memory =

122 Practicing Transfer Practice Conditions (A. Baddeley ) Level of difficulty (K. Fischer; Craik & Lockhart ) Number of Skills Practiced vs. Skills Assessed (Theo Dawson, DTS )

123 Most Powerful & Long-Lasting

124 Mind Map that can be Manipulated

125 1.Objects have unique shape 2.Objects have color 3.Can be in sequence or non- sequential 4.Student moves & explains 5.Provides immediate feedback 6.Creates multiple forms of memory 7.Faster than writing or lecturing 8.Practice to mastery or past perfection (abt.3-5 times)

126 Developmental Differences 12 & 10 th grade LTM for Complex, Abstract Material 73 Days37 Days

127 Getting Personal Metacognitive Strategies Personal Involvement Personal Elaboration Physical Movement Elevate Respiratory and Heart Rates Prompt feedback (within 1day-- not longer than about 2 days, No help after a week ---Dweck) Meaningful personal consequences that are nearly immediate --They see their approach doesn’t work—as in a video game.

128 Poor Test Prep

129 Causes of Poor Performance Forgotten RETRIEVAL CUES, not the information (It is still there) Mistakes Familiarity with Mastery ( “But I did a lot of the problems”) Used Massed Practice (in either academics or Sports tested extensively at college & pro levels– Spread out the practice tasks, avoid “massing” ) Practices too close together Unskilled and Unaware of It Too Much Screen Time

130 Brain Break With A Partner: The most important thing for TEST PREP is: Something I need to AVOID I can HELP students prepare by….

131 Ultimately….

132 Two Brains Must be Trained: Yours & Theirs

133

134 For PDF’s contact: Dr. Jeb Schenck Knowa Inc


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