Where we are going: The Brain & Learning The Brain & Learning Brain’s Use of Patterns Brain’s Use of Patterns Emotional & Attentional Processing Emotional & Attentional Processing Movement & Memory building Movement & Memory building Study Strategies/assessment Study Strategies/assessment Making Useful Applications
In effect, all animals are under stringent selection pressure to be as stupid as they can get away with. Richerson & Boyd, Not By Genes Alone, 2005.
In effect, all animals are under stringent selection pressure to be as stupid as they can get away with. Richerson & Boyd, Not By Genes Alone, 2005. The default state in solving any problem is to do as little as possible.
The Brain Grows Everyone grows at their OWN RATE Different parts grow at different times* *It does NOT grow at the assumed rate of National/State Standards Common recommendations for Literacy Have NO Neurological foundation
The 4,000 Year-old Box of Instructional Methods
The 4,000 Year-old Box If they don’t perform by a specified time….
Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Optimal Level High Support Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With No Support? What Can They Do With a Lot of Support?
Cycles in Cognitive Development Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With a Lot of Support? Teaching
Cycles of Brain Growth Many cycles in early years 10-12 Years 14-16 Years 18-20 Years 21-24 Years (From K. Fischer, 2000)
Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Single Abstractions Principles Optimal Level High Support Skill Level 81216202428 Kurt Fischer 2008 Multiple Abstractions linked into systems Abstractions linked Age in Years Direct teacher support Independent or little support
Cycles in Cognitive Development Low Support Functional Level Optimal Level High Support Skill Level Kurt Fischer 2008 Direct teacher support What Can They Do With No Support? What Can They Do With Lots of Support? What happens if we push too fast for that student ?
Optimal Performance During Brain Growth Spurt Optimal performance requires direct support/instruction vs instruction by book or computer. Independent student performance is at a lower level (suboptimal)…You don’t get best performance when they do the task independently w/o coaching Students can’t transfer from an optimal level in one area to a high performance level in a different area*
A Student Brain Develops Unevenly (Out of Phase) Math computational skill is here Reading Math Comprehension is here
Where Do You Expect the Student to Perform? Math computational skill Reading Math Comprehension Transfer—Problem Solving Fails when skills have not developed Test level
Incomplete Frontal Lobe Development In A Group What happens to judgment? What happens to anticipating how others will feel? What happens to anticipating how they will feel?
Incomplete Growth Impaired decision making Impaired decision making More impulsive More impulsive Less emotional control Less emotional control Lower ability to reason Lower ability to reason Lower ability to see consequences Lower ability to see consequences Lower ability to anticipate emotional impact Lower ability to anticipate emotional impact
Learning Preferences Differentiate w/ levels of challenge w/ different modalities Teaching and testing to a “learning style” Makes no difference, Roediger and Pashler, 2009 Neurologically invalid, dubious, outdated information (Schenck & Cruickshank, 2015) Wastes time, Wastes $
Neuromyths Right Brain-Left Brain training Ritualized movement produces higher performance (Brain Gym ™) Intelligence is fixed (can be expressed as a single number) The Flynn Effect Learning can be expressed as a single number Preferred learning styles results in higher performances Roediger and Pashler, 2009
Brain Break 4 minutes Stand and in groups of 3: Stand and in groups of 3: Something that was new or surprised you? Something that was new or surprised you? Compare your “What do you know about the Brain” Compare your “What do you know about the Brain” Something you’d like to know more about? Something you’d like to know more about?
Attentional Systems Emotional Systems Systems of the Brain How to Use them
“ I’m Not inattentive,----- you’re just boring.” From Thom Hartmann
Attention Systems Systems are limited Systems are limited The brain can’t give full attention to multiple tasks = Divided attention The brain can’t give full attention to multiple tasks = Divided attention
Demonstration of Attention An Demonstration of Attention Watch Video Clip Of Student and Stranger
Multi-tasking Experiment Can We REALLY Focus Our ATTENTION EQUALLY On the Tasks?
Partner Up You Need: 1 dollar bill or 3 x 5 card Ability to count to 121 Watch Demonstration
Attention Systems A student must ATTEND to the lesson
No Attention = almost NO CHANCE of information getting into memory No memory = No learning
Attention Strategies: Physical—manipulate objects, or move the whole body, such as hands-on, role play, draw, pantomime, build, model, standing a position, MUSIC (non-vocal) Visual Imagery --imagine a picture or object, draw, sketch, build a model, design a poster, create one power point slide for a group Semantic –Reflect, summarize, describe, individually write, note-take, explain, tell, NOTE THE DIFFERENCES and then SIMILIARITIES Between____________ *** Social --have them watch & text answers/info to explain their partner’s actions Sex Differences Girls are more attracted to activities where EMOTION can be expressed, Boys more attracted to ACTION, MOVEMENT *** Brain can recognize differences easily; similarities are difficult to tell apart
Attention Strategies: The Student is PHYSICALLY ACTIVE during the learning event
The Brain SEEKS stimulation If you don’t provide it, the students find it for themselves
Emotions Affect Learning If Emotionally Important, Brain Pays Attention
Make the Connections With Someone First… then consider the actual message (Papanek & Greenleaf, 2005)
Emotional Significance Do You Remember: Challenger blowing up, 9/11, the World Trade Center? Your third algebra test? What you did on your 21 st birthday? Your Wedding Night?
Emotions & Memory Chemically Made Changed by Threat or Depression Negative State NOT rapidly dissipated
A Demonstration 4 volunteers who like Soda Pop ICE COLD soda pop FREE to 4 volunteers that will participate in….
To Increase Memory Tasks have greater personal importance Student is physically & personally involved Greater natural consequences that they care about Increased Focus of Attention Light to Moderate Stress
Brain Break: 3 minutes Pair and Share: Pair and Share: 1 idea to make a lesson have more PERSONAL IMPORTANCE to the student (and not threatening!) 1 idea to make a lesson have more PERSONAL IMPORTANCE to the student (and not threatening!) In Groups of 4-5 Share ideas In Groups of 4-5 Share ideas
Working Memory It’s what your are thinking about RIGHT NOW !
Working Memory 3-4 Items Activated, Readily Accessible 1 Item Focused Upon Working Memory
3-4 Items Activated, Readily Accessible 1 Item Focused Upon Working Memory Brain EASILY overloads Focuses on ONE thing Juggles several others Leaves ONLY the gist AVOID OVERLOAD
Working Memory Strategies Slow DownSlow Down Don’t attempt several overlapping tasksDon’t attempt several overlapping tasks Present instructions 4 ways (On board, Verbally, In handout, On-line)Present instructions 4 ways (On board, Verbally, In handout, On-line) Repeat back instructionsRepeat back instructions
Working Memory Strategies Slow DownSlow Down Don’t attempt several overlapping tasksDon’t attempt several overlapping tasks Present instructions 4 ways (on board, verbally, in handout, On-line)Present instructions 4 ways (on board, verbally, in handout, On-line) Repeat back instructionsRepeat back instructions
Look At Handout: What Administrators Should Know On2 nd page: Working Memory WHO Should Repeat Back the Instructions?
Working Memory Strategies Pause during explanations, lecture Pause during explanations, lecture Provide skeletal notes to help organization and reduce load Provide skeletal notes to help organization and reduce load Give Brain Breaks Give Brain Breaks to organize material Use different colors to organize material Students actively process just 1 item Students actively process just 1 item
Brain Break Individually: Give an example of how you will reduce WM overload & write it down (2 min). Something YOU can do to create Movement within a long Staff meeting: In Groups of 3 In Groups of 3 Discuss examples Discuss examples
Mirror Drawing Hidden Factors A Demonstration 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 card 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 card Mirror Mirror Writing utensil Writing utensil Mirror Drawing Practice Sheet & a hard surface Mirror Drawing Practice Sheet & a hard surface
Memory Stabilizes after 10-14 days Schenck, J. (2003) 4 th Grade 20% 13%
LTM Affected by: Development/age Recognizing patterns Attention Personal Emotional Significance Working Memory Prior Learning Method of Study & Test Practice
LTM Affected by:Development/age Recognizing patterns Attention Personal Emotional Significance Working Memory Prior Learning Method of Study & Test Practice
Strategies To Build Memory Personal Elaborations (Schenck & Cruickshank 2015) Personal Applications ( Schenck & Cruickshank 2015) Space practices FAR apart * Mix up the types of practice (Brown, Roediger, McDaniel, 2014) NO cramming [Binge & Purge Learning] (Roediger & McDaniel 2014) Sleep on it Practice the TEST w/tests (uses RETRIEVAL CUES ) (Roediger & Karpicke 2006) In Math, do only 3-4 problems of same type Learning Styles have NO EFFECT (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer & Bjork, 2008) * Start with the Assessment Goals & Design Practices to them
Practice Tests Practice Test Methods SSSST TESTe, Sm, Te, Sm, Te WIDE Equal Spacing, or Variable Spacing No Cramming Limit practice of same type of problem No Rereading Practice of transfer w/application Cahill, & McGaugh, (1995) Callender, & McDaniel, (2009) Karpicke, J., Butler, A.C., & Roediger, (2009) Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2007)
Practice on Same Type of Problem More than 4 creates Cramming Effect & illusion mastery because problems are familiar. AVOID cramming by spreading practices out over weeks. Limit
ReReading Increases familiarity Faster recognition & Creates False Sense of Understanding Chabris & Simons 2010
ReReading Does not increase depth of knowledge Does not create new-linkages in brain ELABORATING ELABORATING does help…Explain WHY The student must explain the connections
Elaborate While Personally Engaged More Robust Memory =
Practicing Transfer Practice Conditions (A. Baddeley ) Level of difficulty (K. Fischer; Craik & Lockhart ) Number of Skills Practiced vs. Skills Assessed (Theo Dawson, DTS )
1.Objects have unique shape 2.Objects have color 3.Can be in sequence or non- sequential 4.Student moves & explains 5.Provides immediate feedback 6.Creates multiple forms of memory 7.Faster than writing or lecturing 8.Practice to mastery or past perfection (abt.3-5 times)
Developmental Differences 12 & 10 th grade LTM for Complex, Abstract Material 73 Days37 Days
Getting Personal Metacognitive Strategies Personal Involvement Personal Elaboration Physical Movement Elevate Respiratory and Heart Rates Prompt feedback (within 1day-- not longer than about 2 days, No help after a week ---Dweck) Meaningful personal consequences that are nearly immediate --They see their approach doesn’t work—as in a video game.
Causes of Poor Performance Forgotten RETRIEVAL CUES, not the information (It is still there) Mistakes Familiarity with Mastery ( “But I did a lot of the problems”) Used Massed Practice (in either academics or Sports tested extensively at college & pro levels– Spread out the practice tasks, avoid “massing” ) Practices too close together Unskilled and Unaware of It Too Much Screen Time
Brain Break With A Partner: The most important thing for TEST PREP is: Something I need to AVOID I can HELP students prepare by….