Physical Properties of Matter So many ways to describe matter!
#1 What’s your job during these notes? 1.Pay attention. You’ll learn nothing if you daydream, do other stuff, or spend 5 minutes in the bathroom. 2.Write notes as we go along. For now, you’re not responsible for deciding what to write—that will be done for you. However, you should write neatly so that you can read these notes later. 3.Ask questions if you’re confused or want clarification. Telling me about your new puppy might not be our best use of time, but on- topic discussions will help everyone in the class. 4.Follow the class expectations so that we have a nice & easy time doing this.
#2 Let’s get started on your paper. Write your heading Let’s title this. Notes – Physical Properties Now here’s the important part. To make this set of notes useful to you, it has to be neat & organized. Let’s get started here.
#3 What are Physical Properties? Well, we know that all matter has mass (it’s made of stuff) and it has volume (takes up an amount of space). It doesn’t matter if it’s a fleaor a whale …it’s made of matter. The most enormous stars and the tiniest, microscopic air molecules are matter, too.
#4 Yes, and…? But matter has properties beyond just “mass” and “volume,” right? I mean, after all, if I asked you to describe this object here: …you wouldn’t just tell me, “It has a mass of 34 grams and a volume of 23 milliliters.” You’d use words like delicious, gooey, yummy, soft, smells good, and so on and so on. Well, as nice as it would be to just use whatever adjectives we wanted to describe matter, there are a few that we use all the time that count as physical properties. This is the important part…if it’s a way to describe a substance WITHOUT changing it into a new substance, it’s a physical property!
#5 Definition Notes – Physical Properties I like to write notes in something called outline form. It’s a way to use numbering and lettering to see how things are grouped and related. You’ll get the hang of it— just be careful with your indents for now! I. Physical Properties – descriptions of matter that can be observed without changing it into a new substance. Notice how I use underlines to make points of emphasis…this helps to really make a point to yourself if you read these notes later. The Roman Numeral I lets you know this is the first major topic in these notes.
#6 DENSITY Density is a weird one. You know by now that all matter has mass and volume. But density tries to describe how “packed in” the mass is within that volume. In other words, how compact is the stuff? This golf ball and marshmallow are about the same size (volume). But which is going to have more mass? The golf ball has way more mass. Since they’re about the same size, you know that the golf ball has a higher density.
#7 Density, contd. What’s heavier…a pound of steel or a pound of feathers? Well, a pound is a pound, so they have the same weight. But what would those two piles of objects look like? Hi, Joe. Yo. A pound of steel, yeah. And a pound of feathers. It’s clear steel is WAY more dense than feathers.
#8 More on Density Don’t forget! Gases and liquids have densities too! That’s why when a lot of substances are put in the same container, they often form layers based on their densities!
#9 Back to Our Notes Notes – Physical Properties I. Physical Properties – descriptions of matter that can be observed without changing it into a new substance. A. Density – describes how compact the matter is in a substance. A bowling ball is more dense than a beach ball. Since we’re going to start listing examples of physical properties, we will indent them and letter them to go under the Roman Numeral I. Indent about the width of your pinky.
#10 COLOR Well, it might be pretty simple to say that a frog is green or jeans are blue or Joe is red, but there’s some pretty technical reasons for why things have colors. The point is that you can describe a substance’s color without changing it into a new substance.
#11 Write it! Notes – Physical Properties I. Physical Properties – descriptions of matter that can be observed without changing it into a new substance. A. Density – describes how compact the matter is in a substance. A bowling ball is more dense than a beach ball. B. Color – describes how light reflects off a substance.
#12 LUSTER Ooohhh…look at that biscuit.Ooohhh…look at this gold ring. I desire the one on the left for its tastiness. I desire the one on the right for its LUSTER. Luster describes how shiny a substance is.
#12 Get it on your paper! Notes – Physical Properties I. Physical Properties – descriptions of matter that can be observed without changing it into a new substance. A. Density – describes how compact the matter is in a substance. A bowling ball is more dense than a beach ball. B. Color – describes how light reflects off a substance. C. Luster – describes how shiny a substance is. A diamond has higher luster than tree bark.
#13 TEXTURE Some things are smooth. Others are rough. That’s texture for you.
#14 I’m going to retire the notebook paper for now. D.Texture – describes the smoothness/roughness of a substance.
#15 ODOR A substance that gives off an odor, whether good or bad, isn’t being changed as it does so! E. Odor – describes the smell of a substance.
#16 HARDNESS This one can be a little confusing. You’ve probably heard that the hardest substance on Earth is ___________. That means that a diamond can cut any other substance you can think of, even metals. The only thing that can cut a diamond is a slightly more pure diamond! However, that doesn’t mean that diamonds are stronger than anything else. I’d much rather live in a brick or steel house than a diamond one. Keep your bricks. I’ll take the diamonds!
#17 Write it! F.Hardness – describes a substance’s ability to resist shape change. Doesn’t always mean “strength.”
#22 SOLUBILITY What happens if you take sugar, salt, or kool-aid powder and stir it into water? But you haven’t made a new substance. The kool-aid and water have just mixed super well because the kool-aid dissolves so easily in water.
#23 The Kool-Aid and Water are Separate? Yep. If you had the world’s best microscope, you could see bits of red kool-aid floating around in clear water. Our eyes just aren’t good enough to see things that small so it looks like a consistent, red liquid. If you tried the same thing with rocks, you’d just have a glass full of wet rocks. Rocks aren’t soluble, but kool-aid is! K.Solubility – describes how well a substance dissolves in another substance like sugar stirred in water. The sugar and water have NOT made a new substance!
#24 STATE OF MATTER A lot of you remembered that matter comes in three states: SOLID LIQUID GAS Whether a substance is solid, liquid, or gas is a physical property. You can easily tell me what it is without having to change the substance. L.State of Matter – describes whether a substance is solid, liquid, or gas.
#25 MELTING & FREEZING POINT At what temperature does an ice cube melt into water? At what temperature does liquid water freeze into ice? SAME ANSWER! 32 0 F or 0 0 Celsius. This is a property of water…that 0 0 Celsius is a magical temperature for this particular substance. Above this temperature it stays liquid, but below it, it freezes to solid. NOTICE that it is still just a physical property because the water changes, but not into any new substance! M. Melting & Freezing Point – describes the temperature at which a solid turns liquid or vice versa.
#26 BOILING & CONDENSATION POINT Likewise, what’s the magic temperature for water at which the liquid becomes a gas vapor? Yes, 212 0 F or 100 0 Celsius. N.Boiling & Condensation Point – describes the temperature at which a liquid turns gas or vice versa.
#27 Review All these properties that we described are physical properties. This just means that they are ways that scientists commonly describe substances without having to change them into a new substance. Remember this? You should be able to go down your list of physical properties and decide which this cookie has or doesn’t have. And then eat it!