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Welcome to Change and Transitions As you are getting settled, please do the following:  Read through the historical quotes concerning change (the green.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Change and Transitions As you are getting settled, please do the following:  Read through the historical quotes concerning change (the green."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Change and Transitions As you are getting settled, please do the following:  Read through the historical quotes concerning change (the green sheet in your handouts immediately behind the powerpoint slides).  Select the one quote that most closely represents your current feelings about leading change  Jot down a couple thoughts as to why you selected that particular quote


3 Primary Sources “Diffusion of Innovations – Fifth Edition” –Everett M. Rogers, 2003. “Managing Transitions – 2 nd Edition: Making the Most of Change” –William Bridges, 2003. Balanced Leadership “School Leadership that Works” –Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL), 2006. “Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement” –Richard DuFour & Robert Eaker, 1998. “Influencer: The Power to Change Anything” –Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan, & Switzler, 2008

4 What changes and initiatives have you experienced during your careers in education?

5 Reasons for failure? The change moved too fast The change lacked strong principal leadership The change was too big The change was top-down without buy-in from the staff Gains were celebrated too soon – urgency was lost Schools were unwilling to change Leaders failed to develop a critical level of support The change moved too slow The change relied too heavily on a strong principal The change was too small The change was bottom-up without the support of central admin. Gains were not celebrated and momentum was lost Schools took on every change that came along Leaders mistakenly insisted on overwhelming support Based on ideas from DuFour & Eaker

6 SYSTEMS PRACTICES Information Supporting Staff Performance Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Performance OUTCOMES Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and Safety Outcomes clearly defined & Communicated Formative Assessments Goals, decision rules Researched and Evidence Based practices Time, PD, Collaboration

7 A Brief Overview Change is a way of life Change is hard Not all change is for the better Not all change is possible Even the best of changes often have unintended consequences There is a predictability to change in terms of process in terms of people’s response There are things you can do as leadership to increase the likelihood of success and sustainability of change

8 Change is Hard! “Faced with the choice between changing one’s mind and proving that there is no need to do so, almost everybody gets busy on the proof.” John Kenneth Galbraith, American Economist

9 Activity- Change is Hard! Scurvy and the British Navy

10 Processing Question Scurvy –Why do you think it took so long for a change that clearly produced desirable outcomes to become a way of doing business?

11 The rest of the story … Why were the authorities so slow to adopt the idea of citrus for scurvy prevention? Other, competing remedies for scurvy were also being proposed, and each such cure had its champions. For example, Captain Cook’s reports from his voyages in the Pacific did not provide support for curing scurvy with citrus fruits. Further, Dr. Lind was not a prominent figure in the field of naval medicine, and so his experimental findings did not get much attention. While scurvy prevention was generally resisted for years by the British Navy, other innovation, such as new ships and new guns, were readily accepted. So the Admiralty did not resist all innovations. Obviously, more than just the relative advantages of an innovation, even when its benefits are clearly demonstrated, is necessary for its diffusion and adoption.

12 A little closer to home The are numerous varied schools across the country who are being extremely successful substantially improving the learning of all of their students (especially the at-risk populations). These schools have all made similar substantive changes in the way they do business. Leaders in these buildings have succeeded because of an intense and unrelenting focus.


14 What hill are you willing to die upon? "The credit belongs to those who are actually in the arena, who strive valiantly, who know the great enthusiams, the great devotions, and spend themselves in a worthy cause; who, at the best, know the triumph of high achievement and who, at the worst, if they fail, fail while daring greatly so that their place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." Theodore Roosevelt

15 The “Hill” that is RtI Write the title or a brief description in your own words that describes RtI on the worksheet provided

16 Not all change is beneficial Any given change or initiative might –focus on the wrong thing –propose practices that are inefficient or ineffective

17 Example from the world of special education services Intervention Eff. Size Match Instruction with aud/vis strengths+.03 Focus on right brain- left brain processing+.04 Instruction based on cultural learning sty.+.00 Intervention Eff. Size Explicit instruction and prob. Solving+.70 – 1.50 Comprehension Strategies+1.00 Formative assessment and graphing+1.00 Information compiled from Daniel J. Reschly, Ph.D., Vanderbilt Univ.

18 “You’re kidding! You count MEAPs!”

19 What do we know about RtI? Is RtI necessary? –What’s the evidence? Is RtI effective? –What is the evidence? Is RtI efficient? –What is the evidence? In small groups, please discuss and develop the answers to the questions above on your worksheet.

20 Not all change is possible Any given change or initiative might –not be supported/communicated/held accountable to results –be one more in a series or combination of initiatives (Christmas Tree Schools)

21 Not all change is possible. “Changes of any sort – even though they may be justified in economic or technological terms – finally succeed or fail on the basis of whether the people affected do things differently.” Bridges, 2003

22 Does RtI Have commitment from leadership? Have the resources (or at least the potential for the resources) to be successful? Take a few minutes to identify the evidence that the commitment and resources exist. Identify any competing initiatives that may detract. If the answer is “no” to either, how might you set the stage for success?

23 Howdy Pardner “ This school ain’t big enuf for the both of them.” Dealing with the issue of competing intiatives. Find a partner from another district or location. Use the question guide to “interview” your partner. Take notes to share.

24 Unintended consequences Technology –Snowmobiles, computers, and cell phones Environment –Tortillas, eggs, and global warming Education –Your examples

25 Unintended Consequences and what to do Before committing to an initiative, do your homework –Invite multiple perspectives –Try to think in terms of secondary impacts –Perform cost-benefit analyses –Determine proven effectiveness for your specific needs Once decided, move decisively but realize that unforeseen consequences are just that…unforeseen. Be flexible.

26 Looking ahead What are the possible “unintended consequences” of implementing RtI? Take a few minutes to jot down anything you might have to watch out for.

27 The Good News There is reliable predictability to change.

28 Predictability in the Change Process Stages of Innovation-Decision (Rogers, 2003) People who are a part of the change need … 1.Knowledge 2.Persuasion 3.Decision 4.Implementation 5.Confirmation

29 Knowledge Individuals consciously or unconsciously avoid messages that are in conflict with their existing predispositions… Selective Exposure (Individuals) seldom expose themselves to messages about an innovation unless they first feel a need for the innovation … perceive it as relevant and consistent with their attitudes and beliefs. Selective Perception Rogers, 2003

30 Knowledge Awareness Knowledge – information that an innovation exists How-to Knowledge – information necessary to use an innovation properly Principles Knowledge – information dealing with the functioning principles underlying how a principle works

31 Knowledge “Change agents could perhaps play their most distinctive and important role in the innovation- decision process if they concentrate on the how- to knowledge.” “Consideration of a new idea does not go beyond the knowledge function if an individual does not define the information as relevant to his or her situation, or if sufficient knowledge is not obtained…” Rogers, 2003

32 Persuasion At the persuasion stage, people seek messages that reduce uncertainty about an innovation’s expected consequences. (Rogers, 2003) Sometimes it is necessary for change agents to create a demand for the change by creating a discontent with the current reality and developing a vision of a more attractive reality. (McREL, 2006)

33 Decision Individual or group engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject an innovation Most individuals do not adopt an innovation without first trying it out on a probationary basis to determine its usefulness in their own situation. A demonstration or pilot site can be quite effective in speeding up the diffusion process.

34 Implementation Involves overt behavior change as the new idea is actually put into practice Reinvention (changes or modifications to an innovation by the users) –Pros Faster rate of adoption Higher degree of sustainability –Cons Loss of integrity of implementation Could lead to ineffective practice in terms of outcomes

35 Confirmation Humans often seek to get rid of the discomfort of change by confirming their new direction or behavior. Data can serve as the evidence that the change was either positive or negative.

36 Activity – The Principal as the Change Agent Read the scenario. Find evidence of each of the five stages of the innovation-decision process. 1.Knowledge 2.Persuasion 3.Decision 4.Implementation 5.Confirmation

37 What is needed for RtI? What knowledge will people need in order to accept and implement an RtI model in your schools?

38 What is needed for RtI? Who will need persuasion and what will that persuasion look like?

39 What is needed for RtI? What is needed to support a decision to try? What possibilities can you create for trial runs or pilot sites

40 What is needed for RtI? How much reinvention is allowed?

41 What is needed for RtI? What kinds of data/information will be needed to confirm the effectiveness of the change?

42 Predictability in the people: People and Their Responses to Change The Innovators The Early Adopters The Early Majority The Late Majority The Laggards

43 Categories by Rate of Adoption Everett M. Rogers Innovators 2.5% Early Adopters 13.5% Early Majority Late Majority Laggards 34% 16% TIME

44 Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type Innovators – venturesome, tend to be out of the local circle of peer networks, able to work with a high degree of uncertainty about an innovation at the time they adopt Early Adopters – considered by many to be the “person to check with”, respected by peers, role model, maintains central position in the communication networks of the system, listen to and seeks out research and experts.

45 Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type Early Majority – deliberate, interact frequently with their peers but seldom hold positions of opinion leadership. Late Majority – skeptical, pressure of peers is necessary to motivate adoption, system norms must favor an innovation before they are convinced to adopt. Laggards – traditional, tend to possess almost no leadership opinion, point of reference is what has been done in the past, tend to be suspicious of changes and change agents.

46 Things to keep in mind Categories are specific to the innovation being initiated. People can change categories for different innovations. Innovators and Early Adopters tend to seek out experts and listen to research. The early and late majority look to the early adopters, and not the experts, for their reasons to change.

47 Where are You? On the Graph provided, identify where you would place yourself at this point in time in regards to RtI.

48 Magnitude of change A change is defined by the implications it has for the people expected to implement it and/or those who will be impacted by it. Important!! –The same change can be perceived differently by different stakeholders! Leaders sometimes underestimate the impact and reaction to change or do not manage the transitions well.

49 Order of Change (McREL, 2006) First order changes are changes that are perceived to be a continuation and refinement of existing beliefs and practices. They can be implemented with current knowledge, skills, and resources. Second order changes are changes that are perceived to be a significant break from current practices and will require new knowledge, skills, beliefs and/or resources.

50 First or Second Order? Based on the list created at the beginning, can you identify people for which your particular change would be… –A first-order change (i.e. an extension of what they already do, are, believe in …)? Why? –A second-order change (i.e. a significant break from what they already do, are, believe in …)? Why? Add this information to your worksheet.

51 Predictability in the Transition Process: The Three Phases To start, you must end A time of uncertainty is to be expected and embraced. The new beginning is a time to establish focus and a new sense of purpose.

52 Three Phases of Transition William Bridges The New Beginning The Neutral Zone Ending, Losing, Letting Go Time

53 Understanding Transitions “I have learned how self-defeating it is to try to overcome people’s resistance to change without addressing the threat the change poses to their world.” Change is situational, transition is psychological. It is the transitions that will do you in.” Quotes from “Managing Transitions – 2 nd Edition” William Bridges

54 The First Phase – The Ending Letting go of the old was and the old identity people had William Bridges: “Managing Transitions” “The failure to identify and get ready for endings and losses is the largest difficulty for people in transition … leads to more problems for organizations in transition than anything else.”

55 How to get people to let go Identify who is losing what Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses Don’t be surprised at overreaction Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically William Bridges: “Managing Transitions”

56 How to get people to let go Expect and accept the signs of grieving Compensate for the losses Give people information repeatedly Define what is over and what isn’t William Bridges: “Managing Transitions”

57 How to get people to let go Mark the endings Treat the past with respect Let people take a piece of the old way with them Show how endings ensure the continuity of what really matters William Bridges: “Managing Transitions”

58 How to get people to let go Finally, whatever must end, must end! Don’t drag it out. Plan carefully, allow time for healing, but make sure that the action is large enough to get the job done! In taking possession of a state, the conqueror should well reflect as to the harsh measures that may be necessary, and then execute them at a single blow…Cruelties should be committed all at once. Niccolo’ Machiavelli, Italian Political Philosopher It doesn’t work to leap a 20-foot chasm in two 10-foot jumps. American Proverb William Bridges: “Managing Transitions”

59 On your worksheet Write a statement describing what is changing, what practices need to stop and what practices will take their place. How will this be communicated clearly and repeatedly?

60 Keys to Responding to Resisters (DuFour & Eaker, 1998) Assume good intentions Identify specific behaviors essential to the success of the initiative Focus on behavior, not attitude. Monitor behavior. Acknowledge and celebrate small victories Confront incongruent behavior with specific concerns and communicate logical consequences.

61 Behavior – Attitude Interaction There is a large literature base demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. People accept new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior. –Pfeffer and Sutton

62 Behavior – Attitude Interaction Attitudes in this world are not changed abstractly … attitudes are partly the result of working, attitudes are partly the result of action. You do not fold your hands and wait for attitude to change by itself.

63 Dealing with Resistance Please read about Henry in “A Story” Identify what the principal did to move Henry from a resister to a participator.

64 Willingness to Lead A common failing of leaders at all levels is the failure to be emphatically assertive when necessary. Abilities to persuade, build consensus, and utilize all the other arts of influence are important – but they don’t always do the job. Sometimes it simply comes down to using the power of one’s position to get people to act. –Daniel Goleman

65 The Second Phase – The Neutral Zone The psychological no-man’s land between the old reality and the new one

66 Dangers of the Neutral Zone Anxiety rises and motivation falls Productivity suffers Old weaknesses reemerge with a vengeance People are overloaded and get mixed signals. People become polarized (poorly managed, this can lead to terminal chaos) Organization is vulnerable to attack from the outside and sabotage within

67 Helping people through the Neutral Zone Normalize Redefine Create temporary systems Strengthen communications and relationships Use the time creatively (leaders should model this – start with yourself!)

68 The Third Phase – Launching a New Beginning A start can and should be carefully planned. Starts take place on a schedule as a result of decisions The Four P’s

69 Purpose –Clarify and communicate Picture –Give them a vision Plan –This is not a plan for the change but a plan for the transition (should be detailed, person-oriented, and step-by-step) Part –Integrate and show people how they fit into the new scheme

70 “Influencer” Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan, & Switzler, 2008 The influencing process –Find Vital Behaviors –Changing Behavior/Changing Minds –Make the Undesirable Desirable –Surpass Your Limits (training) –Harness Peer Pressure –Find Strength in Numbers –Design Rewards and Demand Accountability –Change the Environment

71 Vital Teacher Behaviors The Story of Ethna Reid Please read the story of Ethna Reid. What are the vital teacher behaviors Dr. Reid determined to have the largest impact on student learning?

72 Be Very Clear in Your Direction If you cry, “Forward,” you must make it clear the direction in which to go. Don’t you see that if you fail to do that and simply call out the word to a monk and a revolutionary, they will go in precisely the opposite directions. –Anton Chekhov, Russian Writer

73 Reinforce the New Beginning Rule 1 – Be consistent Rule 2 – Ensure quick successes Rule 3 – Symbolize the new identity Rule 4 – Celebrate the success

74 Something to Consider “Schools that take the plunge and actually begin doing the work … develop their capacity to help all students learn at high levels far more efficiently than schools that spend years preparing … through reading or even training” DuFour 2006

75 Another Thought “Disjointed starts and stops involving too many discrete and disconnected initiatives seldom make a significant or long-term impact. They do, however, keep everyone busy and create the illusion of motion.” DuFour 2006

76 Identifying Next Steps  Looking at what you have written on your “Planning for Change Worksheet,” please identify …  the first thing(s) that you must do to increase the chances for success of RtI in your schools/district.  the resources or support that you believe would be most helpful. BE READY TO SHARE.

77 Some final quotes for thought Where we all think alike, no one thinks very much. –Walter Lippmann, American Journalist Beginnings are always messy. –John Galsworthy, British Novelist

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