Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Safety If we do not follow the safety regulations, the welding may lead to –Serious injuries, –Permanent disabilities, –Death. Welding safety procedures are developed to avid hazards that might be present from welding operations such as: Hazard of welding products (slag material may pop during welding), fumes and gases, electric shock, noise, heat, burns and radiation.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Heath risks The Ultra Violet (UV) rays of the welding arc can injure the eyes or the skin, Some gases produced by welding may be toxic and if breathed in may affect the lungs, Welding near flammable materials or welding on containers that have held combustible materials poses a fire risk. OSHA= Occupational Safety and Health Administration is a federal agency that requires all employers to provide a safe environment for their employees.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Working in confined spaces A confined space: –is a workspace that is large enough and so configured that a person can bodily enter it and perform assigned work, –has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, –is not designed for continuous occupancy. Examples: Tanks, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, pits, and trenches.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri A permit required confined space It contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere, It contains a material that has the potential to engulf or flow over the entrant, It has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, The confined space contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Ventilation Welding should only be performed in well-ventilated areas. This is critical for confined areas where fumes, smoke and dust are likely to collect. Sometimes a respirator, fan or an exhaust system may be required. Metals that produce toxic and hazardous fumes: Zinc, Brass, Bronze, Lead, Cadmium, or Beryllium. Also galvanized steel, metals painted with lead-base paint produce toxic fumes. Remember that shielding gases are asphyxiants, and welding fumes are harmful. asphyxia =a lack of oxygen or excess of carbon dioxide in the body that results in unconsciousness and often death
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Rays generated in welding process Ultraviolet or UV (300 nanometer) Visible (600 nanometer) Infrared or IR (micrometer) Radiation (UV and IR) can burn the skin and damage the eyes.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Eye protection Eyes should be protected against: –Radiation (UV, IR) –Sparks and hot slags that can be projected. A welding arc should only be viewed through filter plates that meet the requirements of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Helmets Helmets have filter plates or filter glasses to protect against injury and UV and IR. Hand held helmets are used by observers. Various types of helmets: –Auto darkening (darkens in less than a hundred-millionth of a second when arc light strikes the filter), –Flip front, –Fixed shade, –Compact. Shade 5 for Oxyacetylene Welding, Shade 10 for 75A (amps) to 200A for ARC welding, Shade 12 for 200A to 400A, Shade 14 for over 400A. Arc welding requires a No. 10 to 12 filter lens. MIG welding requires at least a No. 10 shaded lens. TIG welding requires a No. 11 or 12 shaded filter lens.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Safety glasses and goggles We have to remove the thin crust (slag) from the deposited bead, so safety glasses should be worn. Because of the stresses that build up in the weld, slag may occasionally pop off the weld.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Proper clothing Work cloths should be made of natural materials (leathers, wool, cotton). Synthetic materials like polyester should never be worn, as they melt and burn easily. And can cause severe injury. Coveralls or work cloths should be heavy enough to prevent IR and UV rays from penetrating to the skin. No cuffs and pockets (to prevent molten metal from catching in the clothes).
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Proper clothing Sleeves and collars should be kept buttoned. Gloves (leather or gauntlet-type) for UV and IR rays and spattering hot metal. Gloves should be worn at all times. Leather jacket and apron (spatter may cause injury). Work boots (leather or other approved materials with a reinforced or steel toe). No Tennis or street shoes.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Ear Protection These operations produce high levels of noise: Chipping, Peening, air carbon gouging, plasma arc cutting. Inserted to ear canals and are made of rubber, foam, or plastic. worn over the ears to reduce the level of noise. NRR=27dBNRR=32 dB Safe noise levels are indicated by regulations developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and OSHA. Noise Reduction Rating Number (NRR) is a number that indicates the noise level reduction in decibels (dB). –An NRR of 27 Noise level is reduced by 27 dB.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Hazardous substances Hazardous substances: –include those that are combustible, toxic, or corrosive. Examples are: Fumes and solid particles originated from the welding process. Gases that are generated during welding. –May be present in a container having previously held : A liquid that releases flammable, and/or toxic vapors at atmospheric conditions, An acid or alkaline material that reacts with metals to produce hydrogen, A liquid or solid that releases hazardous vapor if the container is heated, A dust cloud of finely divided airborne particles, A flammable or toxic gas.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Avoid electrical shock! Make certain that the electrode holder and all electrical connections and cables are properly insulated. Check to see that the welder is properly grounded. Do not dip the electrode holder in water to cool it because this practice may result in electrical shock. Never weld in damp locations because of the shock hazard. When operating a MIG welder, never touch the electrical connection, bare wire, work, or a machine part which may cause electrical shock.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Avoid electrical shock! Gloves help to insulate against possible shock. When TIG welding never touch the tungsten electrode with the filler rod. The tungsten electrode is charged with electric current which may charge the filler rod and shock the person welding. The current potential at the tungsten electrode is at the arc voltage level or higher. A shock from the electrode could be deadly.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Safety Instructions Wear hearing protection with TIG pulsed power and high current settings. Power pulses cause the arc to emit sound waves. Because the noise produced may be loud at high current pulses, hearing protection should be worn. Adjust the TIG high frequency unit only within the limits recommended by the manufacturer. This will help reduce the possibility of shock and body burns.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Safety Instructions Protect welding cables. Keep the cables from coming in contact with hot metal and sharp edges. When welding, avoid wrapping electrode cables around your body. Use both hands. To reduce fatigue, use both hands for welding. Handle hot metal with pliers or tongs. Submerge hot metal completely in water to prevent steam burns. Do not allow electrode to stick. If the electrode sticks, cut off the switch, allow electrode to cool, and then break it loose with your gloved hand.
Manufacturing Processes lab (MET 1321) Prof S. Nasseri Safety Instructions Prevent burns. Never allow the hot electrode or electrode holder to touch bare skin. Avoid letting the electrode touch the grounded cable. Remove hot metal from the work area when you are finished welding to prevent burns to others. Secure work. Use a welding table with a positioner to hold welds securely in place. Clamps and vises can be used to hold odd- shaped work or field work. Securing work will also prevent injury from accidental dropping of metal on your feet or body.