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Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6

2 What is a noun? persons, places, things, ideas, states or qualities

3 Marcus cibum conspicit.
Marcus catches sight of the food. Flavia ancillam conspicit. Flavia catches sight of the slave-woman. Pollux arborem conspicit. Pollux catches sight of the tree.

4 declensions 1st 2nd 3rd sing. plural nominative genitive - dative accusative ablative

5 Cases = part of speech nominative subject genitive
shows possession - 's, of . . . dative indirect object - to, for . . . accusative direct object, object of a preposition ablative object of a preposition

6 a word that expresses an action, state or condition
What is a verb? a word that expresses an action, state or condition

7 what a subject is or does
What does a verb tell? what a subject is or does

8 What does tense mean? time of the verb

9 How many persons do verbs have?

10 How does English indicate the person of a verb?
use of a personal pronoun

11 1st: -o I -mus we 2nd: -s you -tis 3rd: he, she, it -nt they you all
Latin singular English singular plural English 1st: -o I -mus we 2nd: -s you -tis you all 3rd: -t he, she, it -nt they

12 ego I tu you nos we vos you all

13 What is an verb infinitive?
a form a verb without person or number to walk to love to prepare to watch to carry

14 -re What two letters does a Latin infinitive end in? to walk ambulāre
to love amāre to prepare parāre to watch spectāre to carry portāre -re

15 volo nolo paras potest vult parat non vult I want . . . I don’t want . . . you prepare . . . he is able . . . he wants . . . he prepares . . . he doesn't want . . .

16 Activity 1 - underline the infinitive, circle the verb it completes and translate 1. Ego ad villam currere volo Ancilla cibum coquere vult Ego cubiculum purgāre nolo.

17 4. Servus in agris laborāre non vult. 5. Tu cibum coquere paras. 6
4. Servus in agris laborāre non vult Tu cibum coquere paras Sub arbore sedēre potest.

18 What is an impersonal verbal phrase?
a phrase that uses it for the person of the verb

19 What type of verb does a verbal phrase usually occur with?
an infinitive reprehendere

20 How is an impersonal verbal phrase always translated?
with the pronoun it

21 necesse est it is necessary

22 Necesse est Latinos verbos studere.
It is necessary to study Latin words.

23 What is meant by gender? grammatical classification of a word as either masculine, feminine or neuter

24 In English: nouns are not classified according to grammatical gender, some nouns however have natural gender based on the biological sex of the person or animal.

25 In Latin: natural gender - all words referring to males are masculine
deus god puer boy Juppiter Jupiter vir man

26 all words referring to females are feminine:
mater mother regina queen Juno Juno femina woman

27 most nouns ending in -a are feminine most nouns ending in -us are masculine

28 Grammatical gender - unrelated to biological sex masculine. feminine
Grammatical gender - unrelated to biological sex masculine feminine neuter book boat river chariot tree temple army courage gift field country animal

29 a word used to describe a noun or tell about its character
What is an adjective? a word used to describe a noun or tell about its character tired slave slow horse

30 What three things must an adjective agree with the noun it is describing?
case - nominative or accusative number - singular or plural gender - masculine, feminine, neuter

31 laetus, laeta defessus, defessa iratus, irata magnus, magna infirmus, infirma frigidus, frigida temerarius, temeraria happy tired angry large, loud weak, shaky cold, cool rash, reckless

32 vicinus, vicina strenuus, strenua molestus, molesta sollictus, sollicta calidus, calida ignavus, ignava perterritus, perterrita neighboring active, energetic annoying anxious, worried warm cowardly, lazy frightened

33 Davus est servus defessus.
Davus is a tired slave. Ancilla est defessa. The slave woman is tired.

34 Pueri sunt molesti. The boys are annoying. Puellae sunt laetae. The girls are happy.

35 The _______ of many nouns is difficult to predict, but you can tell by looking at the _________used to describe the noun. gender adjective

36 Magnus clamor in horto est.
A loud noise is in the garden. The -us of magnus shows the clamor is masculine

37 Arbor est magna. The tree is large. The -a of magna tells us the arbor is feminine

38 Activity 2 – Tell the gender of each noun below, F for feminine and M for masculine: 1. Aurelia ______ 6. piscina _______ 11. amica ______ 2. stola ______ 7. toga ______ 12. Sextus ______ 3. Davus ______ 8. ramus ______ 13. servus ______ 4. amicus ______ 9. vir ______ palla ______ 5. Cornelius_____ 10. aqua ______ 15. cibus ______  

39 Activity 3 – In each of the following sentences, write N over each noun and ADJ over each adjective. Draw arrows from adjectives to the nouns they describe. Give the gender (m = masculine or f = feminine) of the modified noun. Then translate sentence. 1. Davus semper est sollicitus. Gender: _____ Multae arbores in agris sunt. Gender: ____ Sextus magnam arborem ascendit. Gender: ___

40 4. Puellae defessae iam dormiunt. Gender: ___ 5. Rami sunt infirmi
4. Puellae defessae iam dormiunt. Gender: ___ Rami sunt infirmi. Gender: _____ Sextus ignavus non est. Gender: ______ Nihil puerum laetum terret. Gender: _____

41 8. Sextus ex arbore cadit et magnum fragorem. facit. Gender: _____ 9
8. Sextus ex arbore cadit et magnum fragorem facit Gender: _____ Puellae magnam vocem audiunt. Gender: ____ Puellae sollicitae sunt et ad Sextum currunt. Gender: _________

42 11. Sextus est salvus. Gender: _________ 12. Aqua est calida
11. Sextus est salvus. Gender: _________ Aqua est calida. Gender: _________ Cibus est frigidus. Gender: _________ Pater in villā scribit sollicitus. Gender: _____

43 Activity 4 – Translate each sentence:
1. Cornelia magnum fragorem audit. 2. Pueri sunt laeti. 3. Puella sollicta magnam vocem audit. 4. Sextus est puer strenuus. 5. Davus puerum strenuum non amat. Cornelia hears the loud crash. The boys are happy. The anxious girl hears the loud voice. Sextus is an energetic boy. Davus does not like the energetic boy.

44 6. Pueri ad villam vicinam currunt. 7. Puellae laetae in agris errant
6. Pueri ad villam vicinam currunt Puellae laetae in agris errant. 8. Nunc necesse est surgere quod lucet. 9. Mox omnes surgunt quod strenue laborāre necesse est. The boys run to the neighboring house. The happy girls wander in the fields. It is now necessary to rise because it is light. Soon all get up because it is necessary to work hard.

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