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Chapter 6. What is a noun? persons, places, things, ideas, states or qualities.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6. What is a noun? persons, places, things, ideas, states or qualities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6

2 What is a noun? persons, places, things, ideas, states or qualities

3 Marcus cibum conspicit. Marcus catches sight of the food. Flavia ancillam conspicit. Flavia catches sight of the slave-woman. Pollux arborem conspicit. Pollux catches sight of the tree.

4 declensions1 st 2 nd 3 rd sing.pluralsing.pluralsing.plural nominative genitive - dative accusative ablative

5 Cases = part of speech nominativesubject genitiveshows possession - 's, of... dativeindirect object - to, for... accusativedirect object, object of a preposition ablative object of a preposition

6 What is a verb? a word that expresses an action, state or condition

7 What does a verb tell? what a subject is or does

8 What does tense mean? time of the verb

9 How many persons do verbs have? three

10 How does English indicate the person of a verb? use of a personal pronoun

11 Latin singular English singular Latin plural English plural 1 st :-oI-muswe 2 nd :-syou-tis you all 3 rd : -t he, she, it -ntthey

12 nos we egoI tuyou vosyou all

13 What is an verb infinitive? a form a verb without person or number to walk to love to prepare to watch to carry

14 What two letters does a Latin infinitive end in? -re to walk ambulāre to love amāre to prepareparāre to watchspectāre to carryportāre

15 volo nolo paras potest vult parat non vult I want... I don’t want... you prepare... he is able... he wants... he prepares... he doesn't want...

16 Activity 1 - underline the infinitive, circle the verb it completes and translate 1.Ego ad villam currere volo. 2.Ancilla cibum coquere vult. 3.Ego cubiculum purgāre nolo.

17 4.Servus in agris laborāre non vult. 5.Tu cibum coquere paras. 6.Sub arbore sedēre potest.

18 What is an impersonal verbal phrase? a phrase that uses it for the person of the verb

19 What type of verb does a verbal phrase usually occur with? an infinitive reprehendere

20 How is an impersonal verbal phrase always translated? with the pronoun it

21 necesse est it is necessary

22 Necesse est Latinos verbos studere. It is necessary to study Latin words.

23 What is meant by gender? grammatical classification of a word as either masculine, feminine or neuter

24 In English: nouns are not classified according to grammatical gender, some nouns however have natural gender based on the biological sex of the person or animal.

25 In Latin: natural gender - all words referring to males are masculine deus godpuer boy Juppiter Jupitervir man

26 all words referring to females are feminine: mater motherregina queen Juno Junofemina woman

27 most nouns ending in -a are feminine most nouns ending in -us are masculine

28 Grammatical gender - unrelated to biological sex masculinefeminineneuter bookboatriver chariottreetemple armycouragegift fieldcountryanimal

29 What is an adjective? a word used to describe a noun or tell about its character tired slaveslow horse

30 What three things must an adjective agree with the noun it is describing? case - nominative or accusative number - singular or plural gender - masculine, feminine, neuter

31 laetus, laeta defessus, defessa iratus, irata magnus, magna infirmus, infirma frigidus, frigida temerarius, temeraria happy tired angry large, loud weak, shaky cold, cool rash, reckless

32 vicinus, vicina strenuus, strenua molestus, molesta sollictus, sollicta calidus, calida ignavus, ignava perterritus, perterrita neighboring active, energetic annoying anxious, worried warm cowardly, lazy frightened

33 Davus est servus defessus. Davus is a tired slave. Ancilla est defessa. The slave woman is tired.

34 Pueri sunt molesti. The boys are annoying. Puellae sunt laetae. The girls are happy.

35 The _______ of many nouns is difficult to predict, but you can tell by looking at the _________used to describe the noun. gender adjective

36 Magnus clamor in horto est. A loud noise is in the garden. The -us of magnus shows the clamor is masculine

37 Arbor est magna. The tree is large. The -a of magna tells us the arbor is feminine

38 Activity 2 – Tell the gender of each noun below, F for feminine and M for masculine: 1. Aurelia ______6. piscina _______11. amica ______ 2. stola ______7. toga ______12. Sextus ______ 3. Davus ______8. ramus ______13. servus ______ 4. amicus ______9. vir ______14. palla ______ 5. Cornelius_____10. aqua ______15. cibus ______

39 1. Davus semper est sollicitus. Gender: _____ 2. Multae arbores in agris sunt. Gender: ____ 3. Sextus magnam arborem ascendit. Gender: ___ Activity 3 – In each of the following sentences, write N over each noun and ADJ over each adjective. Draw arrows from adjectives to the nouns they describe. Give the gender (m = masculine or f = feminine) of the modified noun. Then translate sentence.

40 4. Puellae defessae iam dormiunt. Gender: ___ 5. Rami sunt infirmi. Gender: _____ 6. Sextus ignavus non est. Gender: ______ 7. Nihil puerum laetum terret. Gender: _____

41 8. Sextus ex arbore cadit et magnum fragorem facit. Gender: _____ 9. Puellae magnam vocem audiunt. Gender: ____ 10. Puellae sollicitae sunt et ad Sextum currunt. Gender: _________

42 11. Sextus est salvus. Gender: _________ 12. Aqua est calida. Gender: _________ 13.Cibus est frigidus. Gender: _________ 14. Pater in villā scribit sollicitus. Gender: _____

43 1.Cornelia magnum fragorem audit. 2.Pueri sunt laeti. 3.Puella sollicta magnam vocem audit. 4.Sextus est puer strenuus. 5.Davus puerum strenuum non amat. Activity 4 – Translate each sentence: Cornelia hears the loud crash. The boys are happy. The anxious girl hears the loud voice. Sextus is an energetic boy. Davus does not like the energetic boy.

44 6.Pueri ad villam vicinam currunt. 7.Puellae laetae in agris errant. 8.Nunc necesse est surgere quod lucet. 9.Mox omnes surgunt quod strenue laborāre necesse est. The boys run to the neighboring house. The happy girls wander in the fields. It is now necessary to rise because it is light. Soon all get up because it is necessary to work hard.

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