Presentation on theme: "Hearing Detection Loudness Localization Scene Analysis Music Speech."— Presentation transcript:
Hearing Detection Loudness Localization Scene Analysis Music Speech
Detection and Loudness Sound level is measured in decibels (dB) - a measure of the amplitude of air pressure fluctuations
Detection and Loudness Sound level is measured in decibels (dB) - a measure of the amplitude of air pressure fluctuations dB is a log scale - small increases in dB mean large increases in sound energy
Detection and Loudness Sound level is measured in decibels (dB) - a measure of the amplitude of air pressure fluctuations dB is a log scale - small increases in dB mean large increases in sound energy We have a dynamic range that is a factor of 7.5 million!
Detection and Loudness minimum sound level necessary to be heard is the detection threshold
Detection and Loudness detection threshold depends on frequency of sound: very high and very low frequencies must have more energy (higher dB) to be heard greatest sensitivity (lowest detection threshold) is between 1000 hz to 5000hz
Detection and Loudness Detection can be compromised by a masking sound even masking sounds that are not simultaneous with the target can cause masking (forward and backward masking)
Detection and Loudness Loudness is the subjective impression of sound level (and not identical to it!)
Detection and Loudness For example, tones of different frequencies that are judged to be equally loud have different SPLs (dB)
Detection and Loudness Hearing loss due to exposure to high-intensity sounds (greater than 100 dB) is frequency-specific and can last many hours
Detection and Loudness Incidence of noise-related hearing loss is increasing dramatically iPods and other “earbud” music players are thought to be partly responsible How loud is an iPod? –maximum volume is approximate but is somewhere between 100 dB (hearing damage in about 2 hours) to 115 dB (hearing damage in about 15 minutes) Consequences: difficulty understanding speech, tinnitus, deafness Your perception of loudness adapts so it’s hard to tell how loud your iPod is - LOCK THE VOLUME ON YOUR iPOD!
recall the lake analogy: task is to –localize the positions of the boats on a lake using the pattern of ripples at two points on the shore –Identify the sources of those ripples –Ignore non-relevant ripples Auditory Scene Analysis
All you have is a pair of instruments (basilar membranes) that measure air pressure fluctuations over time Localization
There are several clues you could use: Localization
Localization Additional cues: Head Related Transfer Function: Pinnae modify the frequency components differently depending on sound location
Localization Additional cues: Room Echoes: For each sound, there are 6 “copies” (in a simple rectanguluar room!). Different arrival times of these copies provide cues to location of sound relative to the acoustic space
Localization What would be the “worst case” scenario for localizing a sound?