Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Nikhil K Chanani MD Murmurs: Do you hear what I hear? When does it matter?

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Nikhil K Chanani MD Murmurs: Do you hear what I hear? When does it matter?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Nikhil K Chanani MD Murmurs: Do you hear what I hear? When does it matter?

3 2 Audience Poll  You are examining a 5 day old and find either: A) a 2/6 systolic murmur in an otherwise asymptomatic child B) a saturation of 89% in an otherwise asymptomatic child with no murmurs C) poor pulses and mottled skin in a distressed infant with no murmurs  Which is least likely to have hemodynamically significant cardiac disease?

4 3 Background  Up to 2/3 of children will have a murmur heard at some point in their childhood  Incidence of congenital heart disease is 8/1000 This means less than 2% of all murmurs are associated with congenital heart disease  As many as 80% of heart lesions are missed during initial neonatal exam* * Emslie et al, Examination for cardiac malformations at six weeks of age. Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal ed. 1999; 80: F46.

5 4  A cardiac murmur is the sound of turbulent blood flow. A murmur does not necessarily indicate heart disease.  The clinician should emphasize this fact to the patient’s family.  A murmur is merely one part of a complete cardiovascular assessment. History, vital signs, physical diagnosis, diagnostic testing

6 5 Auscultation  S1: closing of mitral & tricuspid valves Normally single heard best at apex or LLSB Split S1 uncommon  Conduction delay: RBBB, LBBB  Valvular problem, ex: Ebstein’s

7 6 Auscultation  S2: closing of aortic & pulmonary valves Physiologic splitting, varies with respiration Heard best at LUSB Physiologic demo  Abnormal S2 Widely split Narrowly split Single S2 Paradoxically split Abnormal intensity

8 7 Auscultation  S3: rapid ventricular filling Occurs soon after S2 Best heard at the apex or LLSB May be normal in older children (not infants!) Dilated ventricles  large shunts  dilated cardiomyopathy  myocarditis

9 8 Auscultation  S4: increased atrial pressure against stiff ventricle Best heard at the apex Never normal in children Immediately prior to S1 Indicates poor ventricular compliance  HTN,  decreased ventricular compliance  HCM

10 9 Auscultation  Clicks Ejection click  Sounds like split S1, but heard at base  Dysplastic semilunar valve, dilated great artery Midsystolic click  Heard at apex in MVP  Opening snap Early diastolic, at apex in mitral stenosis  Friction Rub Pericarditis, effusion

11 10 Physical exam - Murmurs  Sound created by turbulant bloodflow through heart and great vessels  Murmurs grade/intensity Timing Location Radiation Shape Quality frequency/pitch

12 11 Murmurs  Systolic Murmurs Ejection  interval b/w S1 & murmur  crescendo-decrescendo  innocent or pathologic Regurgitant/holosystolic  begins with S1  always pathologic –VSD, TR, MR

13 12 Murmurs  Diastolic Murmurs: between S2 & S1 Early: decrescendo  AI and PI Mid/Late: low pitched, may start with S3  AV valve stenosis or increased flow  Continuous Murmurs: continue through S2 AP or AV connections: PDA, AVM, shunts Combination systolic and diastolic  To-fro murmurs: AS and AI, PS and PI Venous hum

14 13 Grading Murmurs Without thrill Grade 1: very faint, barely audible Grade 2: soft but easily heard Grade 3: intermediate

15 14 Grading Murmurs (cont.) With thrill Grade 4: loud, with a palpable vibration (thrill) Grade 5: very loud, audible with edge of stethoscope on chest Grade 6: very loud, audible with stethoscope just off chest  Diastolic murmurs are graded from 1-4

16 15 Systolic Murmurs A systolic murmur generally represents forward flow through the aortic or pulmonary valve backward flow through the mitral or tricuspid valve flow through the VSD innocent (Still’s) murmur through the LV cavity innocent flow murmurs through aortic and pulmonary valves with anemia, bradycardia, fever or hyperthyroidism

17 16 Diastolic Murmurs A diastolic murmur generally represents forward flow through the mitral or tricuspid valve backward flow through the aortic or pulmonary valve innocent flow murmurs across mitral or tricuspid valve with anemia, bradycardia, fever, or hyperthyroidism

18 17 Continuous Murmurs Venous hums Patent ductus arteriosus Collateral vessels Coronary arterial fistulae or any arteriovenous fistula Surgical systemic arterial to pulmonary arterial shunts Aorticopulmonary windows

19 18 Innocent Murmurs The following is a list of innocent murmurs and their characteristics in children and adolescents:

20 19 Innocent Murmurs (cont.) Still’s murmur Most common, vibratory, musical in nature; LLSB-apex; louder supine; murmur decreases with Valsalva strain; R/O VSD, MR, sub-AS

21 20 Innocent Murmurs (cont.) Supraclavicular arterial bruit Above clavicles; murmur is low intensity and in early systole; possible associated thrill; R/O AS, PS, VSD, coarctation

22 21 Innocent Murmurs (cont.) Venous hum Continuous; gravity-dependent; due to turbulent subclavian, innominate vein and SVC flow; murmur disappears when patient supine; R/O anemia, hyperthyroidism, cerebral AVM

23 22 Innocent Murmurs (cont.) Peripheral pulmonary stenosis (newborn) Base, axillae, back bilaterally; relative PA hypoplasia and bracing; murmur persists until three to six months; R/O ASD, PDA, TOF

24 23 Innocent Murmurs (cont.) Physiologic pulmonary ejection murmur Slightly harsh; second-third LICS; louder supine; no click; R/O ASD, valvular PS

25 24 Pathologic Murmurs For any of the following pathologic murmurs, referral to a pediatric cardiologist is indicated:

26 25 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Loud systolic murmur (> grade 4) outflow tract obstruction; AV valve insufficiency; VSD

27 26 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Mid to late systolic murmur: MVP or TVP with insufficiency

28 27 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Pansystolic murmur: VSD, MR, TR

29 28 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Continuous murmur other than venous hum: blowing, crescendo-decrescendo (PDA, collateral, shunt)

30 29 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Diastolic murmur: semilunar valve insufficiency; AV valve stenosis (fixed vs. relative)

31 30 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Associated CV abnormalities; pulses, perfusion; precordial impulse; heart sounds (S1-S4); clicks, blood pressure; symptoms; lab studies

32 31 Pathologic Murmurs (cont.) Loud murmur in delivery room/nursery: outflow tract stenosis; AV valve insufficiency Every baby has a large PDA after delivery. This should not, however, cause an audible murmur.

33 32 Summary “Listen in all areas for heart murmurs. First in systole and then in diastole. Concentrate on dissection. After much practice, this should become automatic.” From “Listening to Heart Murmurs in Infants and Children” by Jerome Liebman, MD

Download ppt "Nikhil K Chanani MD Murmurs: Do you hear what I hear? When does it matter?"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google